RCOT Middle East (Southwest Asia)

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Transcript RCOT Middle East (Southwest Asia)

RCOT Middle East
(Southwest Asia)
Mesopotamia: Sumer
 Math system based on number 60
 Numbers expressed as
fractions/multiples of 60
 Mesopotamians=practitioners of
Mesopotamia: Babylon
 Founded by Hammurabi (led Amorites
in invasion of Akkad)
 Law code inscribed on stone pillar
 Late bronze age
 Anatolia (Turkey)
New Kingdom Egypt
 Nubia (between Aswan and Khartoum)
 Connects Sub-Saharan Africa with North
Africa, has Nile river
 Kush kingdom: capitals karma one of the
earliest urbanized centers in tropical
Africa, built monumental wall mud
Assyrian Empire
 10th century- 7th century BCE
 Extend from Iranian Plateau to eastern
 Mass deportation because break up
rebels, shift human resources to center
 Open lands for agriculture, palaces and
Ancient Israel
 Hebrew bible
 Abraham 20th century BCE settled in
 Drought: move to Egypt: slavery
 Moses: exodus from Egypt: back to Israel
 Develop Canaanite models: alphabetic
system of writing
 Phoenician trading network
 Explore and colonize with
Mediterranean, North African coasts and
East Spain for raw materials, trading
Persian Empire
 Socrates, Plato (influential thinkers)
 Alexander the great defeated Persian
 On coast of Mediterranean
Conquests of Alexander the Great
 Defeated Persian forces in 3 battles
 Developed city states: Alexandria in
 Victories in Euagamela
Spread of Islam
Madras= religious college, cultural unity
Sharia= different meanings
Morocco, Mali (very big empire 11th century)
Slavery allowed
Abbasid caliphate established (after Umayyad
Increase literary works: Golden Age
During Samanids, Lang= Persian written in
Arabic letters
Umma- community; acceptance of God
Shiites – Ali rightful successor
Sunnis caliphs to be Imam
Hadith- reports of prophet
Identity based on ethnicity and localism;
identity based on religion
Abbasid Caliphate
 Established 750; based in Baghdad
 Increase literary works; resulted in
Golden Age
 Revolts in Caliphate ; weakened central
power in Baghdad, prevented tax
revenues to boost local prosperity
 Abbasid caliphate controlled by Buyid
Shiites; Caliph remained
 Dynamic growth in outlying provinces
while Caliphate had loss of power
 Mongols end Abbasid Caliphate in 1258,
destroyed mosques, ravaged Baghdad
Ottoman Empire
 Founded in 1300-1922
 Hagia Sophia: Mosque after 1453
 Suleiman conquered Belgrade and
 Reign of Suleiman= imperial system
worked to perfection
 Women were active in real estate
Safavid Empire 1502-1722
 Devoted to Shiite Islam (Caliph should
be in Muhammad's bloodline)
 Shah Abbas (1587-1629)
 Isfahan (capital)
 Royal mosque (Isfahan) had Arabic
calligraphy, minaret
 Afghans capture Isfahan, end Safavid
Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire
 Inherited Anatolia and Balkans
 Arab provinces divided between France
and Great Britain (many mandates)
 Mustafa Kemal modernized Turkey
 Women: right to vote no veil
 Men: no fez
 Arabic alphabet: Latin alphabet
Post WWI Mandate System
 Colonial rulers would administer the
colonies, be responsible to League of
Nations for their well being
 Class C: treated as colonies by
 Class B: undeveloped, ruled for benefit
of inhabitants
 Class A: developed, more lenience than
other classes
 Palestine, Trans Jordan, Iraq= British
 France claimed Syria and Lebanon
Modern Middle East
Six Day War: Arab Israeli Conflict
 Balfour Declaration (Jewish home land
in Palestine)
 Palestinian divided Jewish and Arab
state, Jewish (Israel) declare
 OPEC-oil company: Egyptian attack
across Suez Cana;, war in Israel's favor
Egyptian army trapped at canal’s
Southern end
 1974 OPEC quadrupled prices