How did WWII result in many of the civil rights
movements that occurred afterwards?
How was the de-segregation of schools and other
public facilities legalized?
Describe two of the major African American Civil
Rights organizations and describe how they confronted
What struggles did Civil Rights organizations
commonly face when attempting to gain equality?
Provide an example.
Describe each of the following organizations: UFW,
AIM, & NOW. Also, what were there goals?
African Americans, Mexican Americans,
American Indians, and women distinguished
themselves in the effort to win World War II.
Knowing the vital role they played in WWII,
these groups were upset with the
discrimination they faced from the country
they supported fully.
Therefore, after the war, all of these groups of
people began different movements to secure
the freedoms and opportunities white, male
One of the major events that propelled the
African American Civil Rights Movement was
the Supreme Court Case of Brown v. Board of
Lisa Brown, a third grade black student, was
not allowed to attend a segregated white school
near her home and was forced to attend a more
distant all black school. Her father tried to get
his daughter in the closer, superior school.
The NAACP brought the lawsuit all the way to
the Supreme Court to be decided.
The Supreme Court ultimately ruled that
segregation in all public places violated the 14th
The ruling effectively threw the Plessey v.
Ferguson case—”separate but equal”—out the
One of the major reasons why judges decided
in favor of Brown was because the NAACP
proved black girls preferred white dolls
because they were supposedly “prettier” and
Numerous African American Civil Rights
organizations formed to protest against
discrimination and even filed lawsuits to end
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC), led by Martin Luther King Jr., was a group
of devoted southern, black pastors.
The National Association for the Advancement of
Colored People (NAACP) was typically led by
black intellectuals and lawyers.
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC) was a group of college students—both
black and white—who were against racism.
Many of these Civil Rights organizations and its members
faced severe racism, arrests, police violence, and sometimes
even death when protesting or speaking out against
For instance, many college students who were part of SNCC
attempted to de-segregate lunch counters by conducting “sitins” where African Americans would request food despite the
fact it was official policy to refuse service to anyone but
As a result of these sit-ins, many participants had food and
drink thrown at them or were even brutally beaten.
However, because of their bold actions and media coverage,
the President and other government officials felt pressured to
pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed public
Another reason the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed
by government officials was the marches conducted by
the SCLC in Birmingham, Alabama—one of the most
racist towns in America.
Leading non-violent marches protesting discrimination
in Birmingham, Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested by
the local police.
Other members of the marches—including elementary
aged kids—were sprayed with high pressure water
hoses and were attacked by police dogs.
With television and newspapers covering the event
live, government officials once again felt pressured to
confront racism in the South.
Martin Luther King Jr., a Baptist preacher, was the
primary leader of the Civil Rights Movement.
He modeled his nonviolent, confrontational tactics
off of Gandhi, the leader of the Indian Movement
for Independence from Great Britain.
With the help of thousands of students from
SNCC, King was able to gain notoriety through his
shocking nonviolent actions.
Likely due to these actions, King was eventually
assassinated in 1968.
Although Malcolm X and MLK shared the goal
of helping African Americans with their
problems in American society, Malcolm X
preached that white Americans were “devils.”
Like Garvey before him, Malcolm X declared
that African Americans should be proud of
themselves and separate from whites.
He also stated that violence against whites
should be used when they get out of line.
Malcolm X’s radical beliefs eventually led to
his assassination in 1965.
Mexican American workers had long been
discriminated against, primarily in California
and the Southwest.
Led by Cesar Chavez, these migrant farmers
formed the United Farm Workers of America to
fight against bad working conditions on farms.
They boycotted certain farms and crops which
forced large farms to bargain with the UFW.
American Indians, learning from the Civil
Rights Movement in the South, organized to
improve conditions on reservations, protect
their land rights, and improve Native
American education and employment.
Therefore, multiple tribes came together to
form the American Indian Movement (AIM),
which convinced the federal government to
give more financial assistance and rights to
Indians on reservations.
Middle class women became increasingly upset
with raising children and taking care of the
Moreover, women often suffered from job
discrimination and significantly lower wages.
In 1966, the National Organization of Women
(NOW) began to pressure the government and
others for full economic and social equality.
NOW also advocated for greater access to birth
control and abortions for women.