(Focus on devices)
•Ken Gilleo PhD
Nanotechnology ID Crisis
* No universal definition for nanotechnology.
Definition: Ability to work at the molecular level, atom by atom, to create
large structures with a fundamentally new molecular organization and
novel and significantly improved physical, chemical, and biological
properties. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI)
Definition: a set of methods and techniques providing the fabrication
of structures consisting of individual atoms, molecules or
macromolecular blocks in the length scale of approximately 1 – 100
nm. It is applied to physical, chemical and biological systems in order
to explore their novel and differentiating properties and functions
arising at a critical length scale of matter typically under 100 nm.
Source: “What is what in the Nanoworld 11-08.
Definition: A field whose theme is the control of matter on an atomic and
molecular scale. Generally deals with structures 100 nanometers or smaller,
and involves developing materials or devices within that size. Wikipedia
Chemistry: Science of the composition, structure, properties, and interactions of matter, especially atomic and molecular systems.
Top-Down vs. Bottom-up
•Top-Down Nano (TDN)
Erik Drexler is leading advocate
Lower specificity, higher
Some include chemical synthesis
Ultra-precise, no throughput yet
Semiconductors use TDN
Revolutionary if and when it is
done for complex systems
Start with unshaped material
Machine, cut, etch, drill, lase, or
somehow fabricate to desired
Why not use both
is prime method
Our Big World
The sciences overlap
Next Gen 45nm
Nano-Science & Technology
• Nanoscale Materials;
particles, parts, tubes, wires,
ropes, fibers, mesh
• Nano-Optoelectronics; quantum dots/wires
• Nano-Biomedical agents
• MEMS and MOEMS
– not much nano yet (NEMS)
Discrete devices; e.g. transistors, sensors
Nano-ICs – emerging? When?
Nano Building Blocks
• Powders & thin films/coatings – old nano
• Small 3D molecules
Bucky Balls (fullerenes)
Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)
• Wires & ropes
• Self-assembling entities
• Complex shapes (in future)
Carbon Nanotubes (CNT)
Carbon Nanotubes: graphene cylinders closed at either end; new
elemental form of carbon (C).
Uses: semiconductors, electrically conductive non-metals, high thermal
conductors and reinforcement - strongest known fibers.
New uses are being discovered every monthly.
CNTs are usually 1-50 nanometers in
diameter and typically a few microns long.
• Definition: wires with diameter < 100nm.
• Electrically conducting, CNT, other materials.
Grow continuously (like polymerization)
• Filled CNT – by capillary action
• Conductivity is quantized
Molecules as Machine Parts?
Building blocks CNT, graphene,
• Quantum Devices have been built
• Electrical: conductive/semiconductor
• Thermally ultra-conductive; 4K wm/C
• Key component for new electronics?
• On most roadmaps since 2007
• Potential is still unknown
IBM Develops Alternative To Silicon Transistors
Electronic News -- Electronic News, 4/27/2001
• R&D focus is CNT assembly & connections
• Need to improve present nano-transistors
• Need massively parallel processing
• Future: nano-transistor integration (IC)
5 – 10 years away, or longer
May not be CNTs or even carbon-based
• Carbon NanoTube light source
• Nanowires – new laser principle
Tiny depressions melted by an AFM tip into a
polymer medium represent stored data bits
that can then be read by the same tip.
Thermomechanical AMF storage
2009 Breakthrough :
"baroplastics" hard, but they
soften under pressure; 1 TB/in2.
Data is stored in domain walls between magnetic regions on a
nanowire. No motion, no wear, extreme density, low power.
From S. Crucheon-Dupey, NanoInk
Combining MEMS & Nanotech
• Discretes; transistors & sensors
• Optical devices; emitters, sensors
• Integrated systems; Nano-IC
• Bio-medical (with electro/electronic)
• Nano-enhanced MEMS
• Nano-passives; including wires/PCBs
Maybe use as part of package
• Best Process bottom-up, top-down, “hybrid”?
• How to move from lab to fab?
• Where to focus – nanotech R&D disorganized
• Clarification and leadership needed
• Investors becoming vary; hype penalty
• Embryonic – scope and potential yet unknown
• “Nanoscale” being confused with “Nanotech”
• Nanotechnology needs to clearly define itself
• Quantum-effect nano has unknown potential
• Disruptive potential; carbon-base electronics