Ancient China - Mr. Baldwin's World

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Transcript Ancient China - Mr. Baldwin's World

Ancient China
The Shang Dynasty
In power from 17661050 BC
 First dynasty to
have archeological
evidence of
Greatly influenced
Chinese history
Shang Government
Created strong central government
 If rulers benefit people, their power grows
 Irrigation
 Flood Control
Shang Religion
The king was the high priest and the link
between heaven and earth.
 The King needed to perform rituals to
please gods
 If pleased, the gods bring good harvests
and victory in war
 If not, floods and famine occurred
Mandate of Heaven
Heaven granted rulers
the right to rule which
means people owed
loyalty to them
War, Floods, and
Famine were all signs
that the Mandate of
Heaven had been lost
Shang Achievements
Developed a system of writing.
 Used pictographs
 Pictures and symbols that represent
objects and ideas
 Started with 3,000 characters
 Later people had to learn 10,000 to even
be considered literate
 Priests developed advanced calendars
 Used by Farmers
End of the Shang Dynasty
The Zhou (joh) invade and overthrow the
Shang dynasty
 The Zhou claim the Mandate of Heaven
Dynastic Cycle in China
an old
Chinese Philosophies and
Confucius Teachings
Based on the 5 Relationships:
 Ruler and Ruled
 Father and son (Filial Piety)
 The duty and respect that children owe
their parents
 Older brother and younger brother
 Husband and wife
 Friend and Friend
The superior person
should set an example
for the inferior one and
is responsible for the
Confucius’s teachings
are collected in the
Created by Lao Zi
 Thoughts collected in The Way of Virtue
 A society with rules is an artificial creation
that disturbed the natural order.
 Best government was the one with the
fewest laws and rules.
 Philosophy – “The best action is inaction.”
Taoist Influence
Believed to have invented the magnetic
compass (for graves) and gunpowder (scare
Example of Taoist Philosophy
“The duck’s legs are short, but if we try to lengthen them, the
duck will feel pain. The Crane’s legs are long, but if we
try to shorten them, the crane will feel grief. Therefore we
are not to cut off what is by nature long, nor to lengthen
what is by nature short.”
Based on teachings of Han Feizi
 Collected in book called Han Feizi
 People act on self-interest.
 Therefore they respond to rewards and
punishments, not good examples.
Developed in India, but reaches China in the 1st
century AD
Preaches reincarnation
 Based on Karma (good or bad)
 Constantly reborn until you reach
Appealed to Chinese because it offered an escape
from earthy sufferings, and meshed with Chinese
ideas and values
Buddhism can be summarized by the 4
Noble Truths
 Life is suffering
 The cause of suffering is desire and
 It is possible to end suffering
 The way to end it is through the Noble
Eightfold Path
Chinese Empires
First Empire (221 – 202 BC)
After the Zhou, China breaks into several
smaller warring nations
 Shi Huangdi (sher hwang-dee) takes over
neighboring states and re-centralized power
 Called the Qin Dynasty
 Used legalist tactics
Great Wall of China
The Qin dynasty is
most remembered for
the Great Wall of
Constructed to keep
nomads (Mongols)
from the North out
Entire Great Wall is
13,171 miles today
and 1,500 miles long
Great Wall of China
Used forced labor to build
Estimated that 1 million people died during the
construction of the wall
 “Every stone cost a human life.” – Chinese
Did not stop invaders from attacking
 Did become a symbol to Chinese
 South = Civilized farming people
 North = Nomadic Barbarians
Start of the Wall at Shanhaiguan
Great Wall of China Clip
Great Wall of China
 Modern Marvels – The Great Wall
The Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD)
The Chinese people are unhappy under Qin
 Established by Liu Bang (lyoh bong) who
led peasants and overthrew the Qin
 China greatly expands under Han
Silk Road
The Silk Road becomes prominent under the Han
 Increases Trade
 Increases spread of ideas
Silk Road greatly
increases cultural
Fall of the Han Dynasty
After 400 years of rule, the Han Dynasty is
eventually ended by invaders.
Achievements of the Han
Acupuncture as a
medical treatment
 Qi
Invented wheelbarrow
and sundial
Discovered how to
make paper
Mongol Conquest (Yuan Dynasty)
China begins to experience prosperity again in the
1st and early 2nd century AD.
Empire created by Genghis Khan
 Grandson Kubilai Khan took over China in
Under Mongol control, China makes contact with
Marco Polo
 Described the effective transportation system
set up by the Mongols.
End of Mongol Rule
By 1368 the Mongols are kicked out from
power and the Ming Dynasty is established
Ming Dynasty
Chinese begin to regain their glory
 Built impressive Navy and Forbidden
 Majority of Great Wall today is from
 Mysteriously go into isolation though and
remain that way until the 1800s
Forbidden Palace
Begin of
End of Reign