The Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution

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Transcript The Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution

 Please come in and sit down get your notebook out and be ready to participate in the
Four Corners Activity. When we are done, you will complete a few reflection questions.
 In this activity, you will be out of your seat in a constructive way. I will read a statement
to the entire class. Based on what you believe, you will go to the corner of the room that
most closely matches your feelings/beliefs on the subject.
The choices are:
Somewhat Agree
Somewhat Disagree
We will complete a brief discussion after the activity
1. Based off of the statements that were read, which reaction
were you most surprised by? Which were you least surprised
2. If the population of the class was different do you think that
the reactions would have been different? (If there had been a
mixture of freshmen and upper classmen, etc.)
3. What statements would you eliminate from the activity if you
4. If you could add two more statements to the activity, what
would they be and why?
 Answer each question in a complete sentence on page 116.
Unit 9 Part I- Revolutions of the Mind
Honors World History
Miss Bonner
 Enlightenment- A time of optimism and
possibilities from the late 1600’s to the late
1700’s that valued the use of reason to solve
 Salons- Social gatherings, center of intellectual
activity with artists. scientists, writers, and
 Government: Philosophers (Philo-
Lovers Soph-Wisdom ) or people that loved
wisdom wanted to apply reason in order to
improve people’s lives.
 Thomas Hobbes-English thinker, believed that people needed government to impose
order= absolute monarchy is the best.
 John Locke-English people, all people are born with natural rights of life, liberty, and
property. Government’s job is to protect those rights.
 Jean-Jacques Rousseau-French philosopher people are good- government should work
for the common good. ( not just for a select few.)
 Baron de Montesquieu-French believed in separation of powers and checks and balances.
 Society: Philosophers dealt with issues like religious tolerance, women’s rights and
 Voltaire-French- used wit and satire to fight for justice
 Diderot-French- compiled ideas about art, government, science, and religion
 Mary Wollstonecraft-English writer that demanded rights for women
 Adam Smith- Scottish economist the wrote- The wealth of Nations in 1776. argued
for a free market (capitalism)
 Enlightened Despots-Monarchs that ruled according to the Enlightenment
 (Frederick II, Catherine II, Joseph II)
 Key Ideas Include:
 + Ability to reason is what makes humans unique.
 +Reason can be used to solve problems and improve lives.
 + Natural world is governed by laws that can be discovered through reason.
 + Like the natural world, human behavior is governed by natural laws
 +Reason can free people from ignorance and unfair government.
 + Governments should reflect natural laws and encourage education and debate.
Philosopher’s Chart Whole pg. 117
His Belief About the Nature of
Their Ideal Form of
(You have to infer!)
Philosopher’s Icon
Body Biography
•Complete the Body
Biography Activity on
•Locke, Rousseau, or
Hobbes. You pick!
•Each writing piece
should be completed
in a different color.
Heart- The area where your
philosopher’s heart would show
their view on religion.
Right Leg- how do they influence
today’s society?
Color - Colors are often symbolic.
Right Hand- should illustrate actions What color(s) do you most associate
and accomplishments OR what they
with your philosopher?
contributed to history.
Why? How can you effectively weave
these colors into your presentation?
Left Hand- should contain the type of
government they thought was best.
2 Symbols - What objects can you
associate with your philosopher?
Choose objects that especially seem
Brain- his belief about the nature of
to correspond with the philosopher.
- Include a brief statement that
Left Leg- This should illustrate their explains the symbol!
view on the “Social Contract.”
LABEL! Label your body biography
with the philosopher’s name
 Directions:
•On the form provided are four passages from the colonial period of American history, plus one from Ronald
Regan, the 40th President of the United States
 .
•Create a chart similar to the one you will see on the next slide
 For each text passage:
1.Write your interpretation in the first column. (Think- classroom friendly language).
2.In the second column, write the name of the Enlightenment Thinker that the text passage most sounds like.
3.In the third column, justify your answer. Tell why you think it is that Enlightenment thinker. (Provide a
Text Passage
See your paper slip
Who Does it Sound
Justify Your Answer
Enlightenment Playlist pg. 120sst
 In order to reinforce the central ideas of the Enlightenment, you will read through/listen to
the lyrics of popular songs and match them to the appropriate philosopher. Each group
will have a set of four songs to analyze.
 On the Next clean Page of your notebook Hold it landscape style and draw 8 equal sized
boxes. Number the 1-8 boxes.
 When you get your folder, Use the song titles as the titles for you columns
 1. listen to the lyrics in the song. Match a
portion of a song lyric to a philosopher we
have studied in class.
 2. In the appropriate space, give the name
of the philosopher and write how the
lyrics represent his/her ideas. You will do
this individually after discussing it. You DO
NOT have to agree as a group. Some songs
might apply to more than one philosopher
but you must give your reasons.
 Thomas Hobbes
 John Locke
 Voltaire
 Montesquieu
 Rousseau
 Mary Wollstonecraft
 Cesare Becarria
 Select three popular songs that better reflects the
Enlightenment ideas than the ones that I selected.
 In three well written sentences, you should summarize the
ideas of one of the men or women above, then explain why and
how the lyrics correspond to those ideas.
“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the
shoulders of giants”
– Sir Isaac Newton
What does he mean?
 Old View: Ideas based on church and
Geocentric Theory.
 +God and our earth are @ the center of
the universe.
 New View:
 Scientific Revolution: A major change in
European thought in which the study of the
natural world was explained by
 +Based on advances made in the Arab world.
 +Began in the mid 1500’s in Europe.
 +Used the scientific methos developed by
Descartes and Bacon.
 +The 5 Steps:
 1. State the Problem
 2. Make a hypothesis
 3. Experiment
 4, Record data/Analysis
 5. Draw Conclusions
 Heliocentric Theory Earth revolves around the
sun, concluded by Copernicus in the early
 Galileo Galilei Italian scientist who built the
telescope in 1609- observed Saturn, moon
craters, and sun spots.
 Isaac Newton Law of universal gravitation,
developed calculus.
 Advances in: Anatomy and physiology (through
human dissection)
 +Circulatory system, microorganisms
 Elements Defined: Law of conservation of mass.
 +Metric system, 1st periodic table.
 Science and Religion: Combined to produce
greatest artistic achievements of the Renaissance
Da Vinci/cathedrals
 +Story of Galileo shows the struggle between the church and the new advances being made
in science
 New way of thinking about the physical/natural world led to:
 +Reexamining of society
 + New ways of thinking new solutions to solve problems.
 The Scientific Revolution
14:45 – 20:17
 Why did so many ships wreck in this period?
 List at least three things that were discovered/finally understood in this period.
 Jim Meigs said, “So often we think about the progress of science, we think about that ‘aha’ moment,
that flash of insight. We don’t recognize so much of science is dogged hard work.” What does he
mean by “dogged hard work?”
 Benjamin Franklin & the Electrical Experiment
29:16 – 35:20
 What was Benjamin Franklin trying to prove when he flew his kite in the storm?
 Using the information From the PowerPoint, the two documents, and the timeline,
Answer the following question-
 Was Galileo a heretic?
 Create an A.R.T.I.S.T list for each document and then answer the four questions at
the end based on the evidence you and your partner gathered.