Transcript Slide 1

Urban Resilience in
Dr. Kyaw Thu, Programme Specialist
United Nations Human Settlement Programme
(UN-Habitat) Myanmar
[email protected]
30 January 2015
Yangon City Hall
• Urban Scene in Myanmar
• Extreme Climate Events and Disasters in
• Urban Resilience Initiatives in Myanmar
• Conclusion
Urban Scene in Myanmar
Total Population–
Urban Population14,864,119
% of the total
population (29.6)
Highest urban
proportion Yangon (70.1%),
Lowest urban
proportion Ayeyarwwady
Population of Yangon is 5.2 Million, while Mandalay is 2.1 Million – two big
cities representing almost half of total urban population in Myanmar…
Source: Provisional Census Report 2014
Urban Growth – National & Yangon
Urban and Rural population
growth trend in Myanmar
(Source: World Urbanization Prospects, 2011)
Population forecast for Yangon city
with 2 scenarios
(Source: Yangon City Development Committee)
Climate Change Projections for
Climate change projections for Myanmar predict:
• a general increase in temperature across the whole
country, particularly from December – May with the Central
and Northern regions experiencing the greatest increases;
• a increase in clear sky days exacerbating drought
• an increase in rainfall variability during the rainy season
including an increase across the whole country from March
– November (particularly in Northern Myanmar), and
decrease between December and February;
• an increase in the risk of flooding resulting from a late
onset and early withdrawal of monsoon events;
• an increase in the occurrence and intensity of extreme
weather events, including cyclones/strong winds,
flood/storm surge, intense rains, extreme high
temperatures and drought.
(Source- NAPA, 2012)
Cyclone Nargis -2008
Extreme Events, Disasters and Development
With Investment in Resilience
Initiatives (DRR/CCA)
Sustainable Development
Without Investment in
Resilience Initiatives
Source: Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Shocks & Stresses in Cities of Myanmar
Acute Shocks
Chronic Stresses
• Flooding/Urban
Surge/Riverine Flood
• Cyclone/Storm
• Earthquake
• Urban Fire/Household Fire
• Extreme Heat/Heat
Waves/Heat Islands
• Disease Outbreak
• River/Bank Erosion
• Landslide
• Drought/Lack of Rainfall
• Tsunami and
• Terrorism
• Traffic Jam/Poor Urban Mobility
• Inadequate public and/or multi
modal transport
• Inadequate drainage/sewage
system/water supply
• Pollution (noise/air)
• Lack of affordable housing/policy
• Environmental Policy/Leadership
• Cultural and Heritage Strategy
• Unemployment/Poverty/Inequality
• Urbanization/Migration
• Social Disorder
• Insufficient Power Supply
• Aging Infrastructure/Building
• Shifting Macro-economic trends and
• Loss of Green Area
Resilience (Definition from literatures)
“Ability of an individual, a household, a
community, a country or a region to 1) withstand,
2) adapt and 3) quickly recover from stresses and
shocks… ”
Urban Resilience
“Capability to prepare for, respond to, and recover
from significant multi-hazard threats with
minimum damage to public safety and health, the
economy, and security…"
Legal/Policy Frameworks for Resilience
• Government recognition for Environment, Climate
Change and Disaster Management issues
Myanmar Action Plan for Disaster Risk Reduction (MAP
DRR 2012)
Myanmar’s National Adaptation Programme of Action to
Climate Change (NAPA 2012)
Environmental Conservation Law (2012),
Disaster Management Law (2013) and
Other zoning, land use planning laws/policies/regulations
• Other areas of improvements
Affordable housing, low-cost housing projects are being
Construction and Housing Development Bank (CHDB) has
been set up
Legal/Policy Frameworks for Resilience
• Intervention in urban sector was very limited in
the past but recently the government has taken
measures to provide frameworks as cross-cutting
Ministry of Construction (proposed Urban Development
Department, Myanmar National Building Code, Urban
Development Plans/Laws, Spatial Development
Plans/Laws, Housing Policy frameworks etc.)
Plans from Yangon, Mandalay and Nay Pyi Taw City
Development Committees
Other related sectors (Transport, Communication,
Environmental Conservation and Forestry, National
Planning and Economic Development, Energy and
Electricity, Social Welfare and Relief and Resettlement,
Home Affairs, Industry and Private Sector etc.)
Legal/Policy Frameworks for Resilience
An example of a resilient plan in Yangon from a
green/environmental perspective..
• Proper town/city planning and a public transport
plan for an environmentally friendly city with a
good urban mobility…
In Yangon, regulating the use of private cars, and
planning for improvements in bus, circular rail and
ferry (E.g., from the two Insein bridges to Ahlone,
Chinatown and Bohtataung areas) would go far..
Urban Resilience Initiatives
Promoting Safer Settlements – Land use
Guidelines for land use planning for urban areas being
developed in Myanmar.
Proposed guidelines will address Disaster Risk Reduction,
Climate Change and Natural Resource Management to
minimize exposure to disaster and climate risks.
Synergies and linkages with other development tools such
as Township Development Plan, Forestry Plan and
encourage participation of communities in the planning
Urban Resilience Initiatives
Myanmar National Building Code
(From provisional 2012 to 2015…)
o Green/environmentally friendly design,
construction and operation
o Zoning requirements, environmental control
and land law - integrating environmental
o Energy conservation and efficiency (not much
in Provisional 2012, to include in 2015)
o Urban Aesthetics control
o Structural integrity for disaster resistance
o Accessibility for disable and elderly
population, and
o Building materials and services, carbon
footprint of buildings, and water conservation
on Current
Buildings is
Urban Resilience Initiatives
Myanmar National Building Code (2015)
o Legal and institutional framework being developed for
enforcement and compliance
o Linkage with Foreign Investment Law, Disaster
Management Law, Environmental Conservation Law,
Municipal Laws and sectors such as Insurance
Learning to use the old colonial buildings and
the possibility of solar electrification
(renewable energy) to offset at least some
power needs…
Urban Resilience Initiatives
Promoting Safer Settlements – Institutionalizing Safer
Construction Practices
Working towards National Skill Standard Authority (NSSA) with
certification (will help ASEAN Economic Community integration).
Curriculum developed for Carpenter trainings with elements of
environmental protection (saving woods, choosing the right
location, protection from fire, etc.), Masons on-going.
Adaptation of relevant section of MNBC into the construction
trainings ..
City Level Resilience Programs
Earthquake Risk Assessments of Cities (Bago, Sagaing,
Taungoo, Mandalay, Pyay and Yangon) and action planning
100 Resilient Cities (pioneered by Rockefeller Foundation)
Mandalay project can be replicated to urban resilience
initiatives in all Myanmar Cities
Formulation of Resilience Strategy for the cities linked with
development and spatial plans – which will be aligned with
national level development goals
City Level Resilience Programs
Indicators and Qualities of Resilience
Urban Resilience Initiatives
• City Development Strategies (CDS) where spatial and
development planning of cities incorporate local
climate and disaster information (for foreign/private
sector investments, industrial zones, other zonings,
and city extensions etc)
• Myanmar Climate Change Alliance (MCCA) funded by
EC implemented by UN-Habitat and UNEP is designed
to address institutional and human capacity
strengthening to effectively address climate change
vulnerability and risks including urban sector
Urban Resilience Initiatives
• Urban Research and
Development Institute
Established in January 2012, URDI
functions as a think tank for the Ministry
of Construction (MoC) in the areas of
urbanization, urban development,
environment, climate change, housing
and disaster risk reduction providing
policy advice, capacity development and
urban research.
Urban Resource Centre - a central
depository for all urban-related
publications and information in Myanmar
and houses Myanmar-specific
Urban Resilience Initiatives (URDI)
• Exposure trainings on Urban Planning, and
Urban Management o
Urban and regional planning (Urban Planning trainings
for Yangon, addressing Urbanization Challenges, City
Credit Worthiness etc.)
Urban infrastructure and services (electricity, transport,
water, waste management etc.) for cities across
Myanmar and
Housing policy and financing;
• Transformation of Urban Management (ADB TA)
Prioritization of development needs and infrastructure,
and the development of socioeconomic and spatial
strategies in six cities in Myanmar (Yangon, Mandalay,
Monywa, Lashio, Mawlamyaing, and Pathein)
Urban Resilience Initiatives
• Sensitizing Disaster Management and Climate Change
Adaptation into State Region level decision makers
and analyzing local priorities.
• Advocacy workshops engaged Fourteen States and
Regions government, (Chief Ministers, Mayors,
Ministers, Parliament Members and regional level
govt. agencies, and CSOs).
• Gaps between national level and regional level
agencies and linkages are identified…
• Needs clear policy, direction and funding/budget from
• Institutional as well as technical capacity needs to be
improved (government and development partners can
• Governance (transparency, accountability) needs to be
• Coordination between different departments and
stakeholders needs to be improved
• National and regional/city level development planning
need to take Green concept and urban resilience into
account and
• Engagement with private sector and community needs
to be improved for investment and inclusiveness in
the city planning..
Thank you