Ethos, Pathos, Logos - Northeastern Local Schools

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Transcript Ethos, Pathos, Logos - Northeastern Local Schools

Rhetorical Devices:
Ethos, Pathos, Logos
What is Rhetoric?
 Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing
effectively and/or persuasively.
– Term coined by the philosopher Aristotle.
According to him, rhetoric is "the ability, in each
particular case, to see the available means of
– He described three main forms (rhetorical
proofs) of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
 In order to be a more effective writer, you
must understand how to use rhetoric and
rhetorical devices to your advantage.
Ethos (Credibility)
 Ethos: the source's credibility, the
speakers/author's authority, an appeal to
character, ethical appeal
 We tend to believe people whom we respect.
 This respect may be automatic or it may be earned.
 One of the central problems of argumentation
is to project an impression to the reader that
you are someone worth listening to, in other
words making yourself as author into an
authority on the subject of the paper, as well as
someone who is likable and worthy of respect.
Ethos Example
Automatic Authority
 Why does this commercial make me want to
go out and buy something with a swoosh on
it? Nike itself isn’t really even
mentioned…why is this persuasive enough
to make me want to spend my money?
Ethos: How do I earn authority?
 There are four dimensions to ethos:
– Similarity: Does your audience identify with
– Trustworthiness: Does you audience have
reason to trust you?
– Authority: Do you have authority on your topic?
How do you prove it to your audience?
– Reputation: How much expertise does your
audience think you have on your topic?
Logos (Logical)
 Logos: the logic used to support a claim
(induction and deduction); facts and
statistics used to help support the argument.
– Persuading by the use of reasoning.
– Statistics, facts, examples, reasons
– Logos Example:
 Pathos: persuading by appealing to the
reader's emotions. Emotional appeals are
one of the most powerful tools of
 Specific word and/or image choice, personal
Pathos Examples
The Most Effective Argument
 The most effective arguments utilize all
three of these.
 As we are looking at Rationalist literature,
we will examine these three and how they
are used.
 In January, you will apply them to your
research paper.