History of Medieval China

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Transcript History of Medieval China

History of Medieval China

Qin Dynasty

   221 B.C., the First Emperor united China under the Qin “chin” dynasty – hence the name, China.

Built the Great Wall to protect empire from northern nomads.

Standardized Chinese script, coins, weights, and measures.

Han Dynasty

   Unified northern and southern China Called China “Zhao Guo” or “The Middle Kingdom” because China was the center of the “civilized” world Emperor was called the “Son of Heaven”; this divine choice was known as the “Mandate of Heaven”

Six Dynasties

   A period of chaos and division China broke apart into separate kingdoms Nomadic invaders ruled the north

Sui Dynasty “ sway ”

   Reunification of China Undertook extensive public works projects Extended military control over large stretches of China

The Great Wall of China  Rebuilding of Great Wall provided security from northern raiders.

 Grand Canal promoted domestic trade by connecting Yellow and Yangzi rivers.

The Grand Canal

Sui Dynasty “ sway ”

   Wen Di thought himself a Buddhist, encouraged practice of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism.

Emperors are remembered for harsh rule.

Forced many peasants to fight in army or to work on public works projects.

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Tang Dynasty “ tahng ”

Wu Zhao, China’s only empress, ruled the most geographically extensive Chinese empire Government composed of departments Bureaucrats upheld Confucian ideals by acting as artists and politicians Confucius

Tang Dynasty “ tahng ”

   Equal-field system limited power of rural aristocracy.

Scholar class became new ruling elite.

Land reform gave some peasants a chance to gain wealth

Tang Dynasty “ tahng ”

  Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism flourished.

Though Buddhism was repressed during the reign of Emperor Wu Zong.

Sung Dynasty “ soong ”

   Government officials came from southern China because the north was under foreign rule.

Bureaucrats selected according to scores they obtained on civil service exams.

Used meritocracy to make government efficient and reliable.

Sung Dynasty “ soong ”

  Cambodian strain of rice allowed Chinese farmers to double output.

Technological advances produced new products.

Sung Dynasty “ soong ”  Chan (Zen) Buddhism became popular in China and East Asia.

Yuan Dynasty “ yoo-EN”

   Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan, grandson of powerful Mongol leader, Ghengis Khan.

Yuan dynasty’s bloody wars of conquest led to the destruction of farmland.

Maintained China’s roads and canals, but later Yuan emperors let them deteriorate.

Yuan Dynasty “ yoo-EN”

  Allowed Chinese belief systems to coexist with Mongol shamanism.

Under Kublai Khan’s encouragement the number of Buddhist monasteries increased.

Yuan Dynasty “ yoo-EN”

  Civil-service system maintained by staffed Turks and Persians.

Strict hierarchy of social service classes developed: 1 st ) tax-free Mongols 2 nd ) Non-Chinese civil servants 3 rd ) Northern Chinese 4 th ) Southern Chinese

Ming Dynasty

   Reintroduced the Civil Service Exam.

Emperors extremely powerful, often ruled as despots.

Heavy taxation and careless government produced peasant rebellion and civil war.

Treasure Ships

  Brief period of overseas exploration.

Later Ming emperors prohibited foreign trade.

Ming Dynasty

  Rebirth of adherence to Confucianism.

Many Chinese combined belief in Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.

Ming Dynasty

  Secured borders of China to prevent foreign invasion.

Rebuilt bridges, canals, roads, temples, and shrines.

Ming Dynasty

Ibn Battuta

Arab Traveler

Chinese Visitors Marco Polo

Italian Traveler

The Silk Road

The Silk Road

Forbidden City

Legend of Mulan In a flower bed at a downtown intersection in Yucheng County stands a granite statue of Mulan in army uniform riding a horse and holding sword in hand.