Labor Unrest and Unionization
Labor Unrest and Unionization
Gilded Age: Unionization
• Explain the effects of industrialization in
the United States in the 18th century.
– Changes in work and the workplace.
– Immigration and child labor and their
impact on the labor force.
• Explain the effects of industrialization on
work and the workplace.
• Explain the impact of child labor and
immigration on the work force in the
• Analyze the reasons for the rise and growth of labor
organizations in the United States (Knights of Labor,
American Federation of Labor, Congress of Industrial
– Unregulated working conditions
– Laissez-faire policies toward big business
– Violence toward supporters of organized labor
The Changing American
By 1880, 5 million people worked in
factories. What were the working
• Unsafe: 1882 - ____________ workers killed/week
• Low wages:
– Men averaged $_____ a year (1899)
– Women averaged $_____ a year (1899)
Long hours: 12 hr. days/6 days per wk.
Workers had few rights
Workers were easily replaced.
• As companies pooled their strength,
workers realized they needed to as well
for their voice to be heard.
• Hidden protests: work slow downs, sick
days, disciplining the “over-achiever”
• Increased use of the strike in the late
• Unionization movement began again after
• 1866: _____________________________
– _________________ members by early 1870s
– Several labor unions combined into large national
– _____________________________ also included
– Call for _________ hour day
– Disagreements and Depression of 1873 killed it.
Knights of Labor
Terence V. Powderly
An injury to one is the concern of all!
Goals of the Knights of
Abolition of ___________________ labor.
Equal pay for _____________________.
____________________ in the workplace.
Prohibition of contract foreign labor.
Open to all laborers except for the idle and
The American Federation
of Labor: 1886
How the AF of L
Would Help the Workers
Catered to the ____________________ worker.
Pushed for __________________________.
Used the strike to its advantage
Saw average workweek drop from 54
hours a week to 49 hours a week
Saw pay increase from $17.50 a week
• 1900: ___________________ members
• Rejected ________________________
Eugene V. Debs
International Workers of the
“Big Bill” Haywood of the
Violence was justified to
“The Miner’s Angel”
Organizer for the
One of the founding
members of the I. W.
W. in 1905.
White House in
Great Railroad Strike (1877)
• Nationwide railroad
• Workers destroyed
• Federal troops sent in
• ________________ die
• Business leaders saw
this as the beginning of
Haymarket Riot (1886)
• Chicago police try to disperse
• Bomb explodes killing 7 police
• Eight anarchists tried and convicted (3
• Businesses now try to crush unions
• Hurt unionization in mainstream
America--linked to ________________
End of Knights of Labor
• Haymarket fear, disagreements over
membership of blacks and women,
unauthorized strikes killed the Knights
of Labor by 1890s
Homestead Strike (1892)
• Owned by ____________________
• Carnegie locked out workers when they
refused a wage decrease
• Armed guards and fences protected the
• Gun battle brought in 8000 troops to
crush the strike and the union
Pullman Strike (1894)
• Pullman required workers live in a
• 1893: Pullman cuts wages by 1/3, laid
off workers and did not cut rents and
• Demanded increased output
• Pullman union leader was
Pullman (1894) Continued
• Major strike and sympathy strikes
• Pullman Co. and Railroad companies
ask federal government to get court
injunction to end strike
• _________________________ sent in
troops to enforce injunction
Violence at Pullman
• Violence burning of cars, $340,000 in
• Strike collapses and several leaders
• Supreme Court ruled in 1895 injunctions
to stop strikes were illegal
Working Class Setbacks
• Workers lost many battles
– Owners often supported by
– Use of _________________________
– Unskilled workers could be replaced
– Economic depressions in 1873 and 1893
• But workers kept organizing
– Over _____________________________ by 1914
Women in Workplace
• 5 million by 1900, 8.5 million by 1920
• Ignored by most unions (________% in
unions in 1920)
founded in 1903
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
• Many women in NYC
– 16-25 yrs old, of Italian or
– 56-hr weeks
• Over 600 shirtwaist factories
employed 30,000 workers
• Conditions: overcrowding,
women renting machines,
paying for electricity, breaks
minimized, safety shortcuts
due to costs
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• 1909: Women want better pay, working
conditions, don’t want to pay costs
• Mass strike in 1909
• Strikers fired, arrested, etc.
• ________________________ support
of factories meant they did very little to
improve working conditions
Out of the Ashes
__________ membership surged.
New strict ___________ were
Tougher ________________ of
Growing momentum of support for