HOI - Sigit Budhiarto

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Transcript HOI - Sigit Budhiarto

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The name "United Nations", coined by United
States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first
used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1
January 1942, during the Second World War,
when representatives of 26 nations pledged their
Governments to continue fighting together
against the Axis Powers.
States first established international
organizations to cooperate on specific matters.
The International Telecommunication Union was
founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph
Union, and the Universal Postal Union was
established in 1874. Both are now United Nations
specialized agencies.
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In 1899, the International Peace Conference was held in
The Hague to elaborate instruments for settling crises
peacefully, preventing wars and codifying rules of warfare.
It adopted the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of
International Disputes and established the Permanent
Court of Arbitration, which began work in 1902.
The forerunner of the United Nations was the League of
Nations, an organization conceived in similar
circumstances during the first World War, and established
in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles "to promote
international cooperation and to achieve peace and
security." The International Labour Organization was also
created under the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated
agency of the League. The League of Nations ceased its
activities after failing to prevent the Second World War.
Signature page of UN Charter, San Francisco, 1945
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In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met
in San Francisco at the United Nations
Conference on International Organization to
draw up the United Nations Charter. Those
delegates deliberated on the basis of
proposals worked out by the representatives
of China, the Soviet Union, the United
Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton
Oaks, United States in August-October 1944.
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The Charter was signed on 26 June 1945 by the
representatives of the 50 countries. Poland,
which was not represented at the Conference,
signed it later and became one of the original 51
Member States.
The United Nations officially came into existence
on 24 October 1945, when the Charter had been
ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the
United Kingdom, the United States and by a
majority of other signatories. United Nations Day
is celebrated on 24 October each year.
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History of the United Nations Charter
The United Nations Charter is the treaty that established the United
Nations.
The following series of events led to the writing of the Charter, and the
UN's founding.
12 June 1941 - The Declaration of St. James's Palace
In June 1941, London was the home of nine exiled governments. The
great British capital had already seen twenty-two months of war and in
the bomb-marked city, air-raid sirens wailed all too frequently.
Practically all Europe had fallen to the Axis and ships on the Atlantic,
carrying vital supplies, sank with grim regularity. But in London itself
and among the Allied governments and peoples, faith in ultimate victory
remained unshaken. And, even more, people were looking beyond
military victory to the postwar future.
14 August 1941 - The Atlantic Charter
Two months after the London Declaration came the next step to a world
organization, the result of a dramatic meeting between President
Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill.
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1 January 1942 - The Declaration of the United Nations
Representatives of 26 countries fighting the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis, decide to
support the by Signing the Declaration of the United Nations.
1943 - Moscow and Teheran Conference
Thus by 1943 all the principal Allied nations were committed to outright victory
and, thereafter, to an attempt to create a world in which “men in all lands may live
out their lives in freedom from fear and want.” But the basis for a world
organization had yet to be defined, and such a definition came at the meeting of
the Foreign Ministers of Great Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union in
October 1943.
1944-1945 - Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta
The principles of the world organization-to-be were thus laid down. But it is a
long step from defining the principles and purpose of such a body to setting up
the structure. A blueprint had to be prepared, and it had to be accepted by many
nations.
1945 - San Francisco Conference
Forty-five nations, including the four sponsors, were originally invited to the San
Francisco Conference: nations which had declared war on Germany and Japan and
had subscribed to the United Nations Declaration
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General Assembly: 193 Member States
Security Council: 5 permanent members and
10 non-permanent
Economic and Social Council: 54 members
International Court of Justice: 15 judges
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Functions and Powers of the General Assembly
Forum for multilateral negotiation
Established in 1945 under the Charter of the United
Nations, the General Assembly occupies a central
position as the chief deliberative, policymaking and
representative organ of the United Nations.
Comprising all 193 Members of the United Nations, it
provides a unique forum for multilateral discussion of
the full spectrum of international issues covered by
the Charter.
It also plays a significant role in the process of
standard-setting and the codification of international
law. The Assembly meets in regular session
intensively from September to December each year,
and thereafter as required.
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According to the Charter of the United
Nations, the General Assembly may:
Consider and make recommendations on the
general principles of cooperation for
maintaining international peace and security,
including disarmament;
Discuss any question relating to international
peace and security and, except where a
dispute or situation is currently being
discussed by the Security Council, make
recommendations on it;
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Discuss, with the same exception, and make recommendations on any
questions within the scope of the Charter or affecting the powers and
functions of any organ of the United Nations;
Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international
political cooperation, the development and codification of international
law, the realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and
international collaboration in the economic, social, humanitarian,
cultural, educational and health fields;
Make recommendations for the peaceful settlement of any situation that
might impair friendly relations among nations;
Receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other United
Nations organs;
Consider and approve the United Nations budget and establish the
financial assessments of Member States;
Elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council and the
members of other United Nations councils and organs and, on the
recommendation of the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General.
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Pursuant to its “Uniting for Peace” resolution of November 1950 (resolution 377 (V)) , the
Assembly may also take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of
a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the
peace or act of aggression. The Assembly can consider the matter immediately with a view to
making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore
international peace and security (see "Special sessions and emergency special sessions”).
While the Assembly is empowered to make only non-binding recommendations to States on
international issues within its competence, it has, nonetheless, initiated actions—political,
economic, humanitarian, social and legal—which have affected the lives of millions of people
throughout the world.
The landmark Millennium Declaration, adopted in 2000, and the 2005 World Summit Outcome
Document reflect the commitment of Member States to reach specific goals to attain peace,
security and disarmament along with development and poverty eradication; safeguard human
rights and promote the rule of law; protect our common environment; meet the special needs
of Africa; and strengthen the United Nations.
The search for consensus
Each Member State in the Assembly has one vote. Votes taken on designated important issues,
such as recommendations on peace and security and the election of Security Council members,
require a two-thirds majority of Member States, but other questions are decided by simple
majority.
In recent years, a special effort has been made to achieve consensus on issues, rather than
deciding by a formal vote, thus strengthening support for the Assembly’s decisions. The
President, after having consulted and reached agreement with delegations, can propose that a
resolution be adopted without a vote
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Mandate
The UN Charter established six main organs of the United Nations,
including the Security Council. It gives primary responsibility for
maintaining international peace and security to the Security Council,
which may meet whenever peace is threatened.
According to the Charter, the United Nations has four purposes:
to maintain international peace and security;
to develop friendly relations among nations;
to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect
for human rights;
and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.
All members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the
decisions of the Security Council. While other organs of the United
Nations make recommendations to member states, only the Security
Council has the power to make decisions that member states are then
obligated to implement under the Charter.
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Maintaining Peace and Security
When a complaint concerning a threat to
peace is brought before it, the Council’s first
action is usually to recommend that the
parties try to reach agreement by peaceful
means. The Council may:
set forth principles for such an agreement;
undertake investigation and mediation, in
some cases;
dispatch a mission;
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appoint special envoys; or
request the Secretary-General to use his good offices to achieve a pacific
settlement of the dispute.
When a dispute leads to hostilities, the Council’s primary concern is to
bring them to an end as soon as possible. In that case, the Council may:
issue ceasefire directives that can help prevent an escalation of the
conflict;
dispatch military observers or a peacekeeping force to help reduce
tensions, separate opposing forces and establish a calm in which
peaceful settlements may be sought.
Beyond this, the Council may opt for enforcement measures, including:
economic sanctions, arms embargoes, financial penalties and
restrictions, and travel bans;
severance of diplomatic relations;
blockade;
or even collective military action.
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A chief concern is to focus action on those responsible for the
policies or practices condemned by the international community,
while minimizing the impact of the measures taken on other
parts of the population and economy.
First Session of the United Nations Security Council in London,
United Kingdom on 17 January 1946. Credit: UN Photo/Marcel
Bolomey
Organization
The Security Council held its first session on 17 January 1946 at
Church House, Westminster, London. Since its first meeting, the
Security Council has taken permanent residence at the United
Nations Headquarters in New York City. It also travelled to many
cities, holding sessions in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in 1972, in
Panama City, Panama, and in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1990.
A representative of each of its members must be present at all
times at UN Headquarters so that the Security Council can meet
at any time as the need arises.
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General Assembly
The following Bodies report directly to the
General Assembly.
Main Committees
Subsidiary Bodies
Committees
Commissions
Boards
Councils and Panel
Working Groups and other
Advisory Subsidiary Body
United Nations Peacebuilding Commission
(1)
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Programmes and Funds
International Trade Centre (ITC)
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for
Refugees (UNHCR)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
◦ United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF)
◦ United Nations Volunteers (UNV)
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in
the Near East (UNRWA)
United Nations World Food Programme (WFP)
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Research and Training Institutes
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)
United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research
Institute (UNICRI)
United Nations Research Institute for Social
Development (UNRISD)
Other UN Entities
International Computing Centre (ICC)
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS)
United Nations System Staff College (UNSSC)
United Nations University (UNU)
UN Women
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The following bodies report directly to the Security Council.
Subsidiary Bodies
1540 Committee
Counter-Terrorism Committee
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)
Military Staff Committee
Peacekeeping Operations and Missions
Sanctions Committees
Standing Committees and Ad Hoc Committees
UN Compensation Commission
Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict
Informal Working Group on Documentation and Other Procedural
Questions
Advisory Subsidiary Body
United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (1)