The Malacca Straits Patrol

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Transcript The Malacca Straits Patrol

S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies
Singapore’s Security Priorities
in the Malacca Straits
Joshua Ho
Senior Fellow
23 June 09
Introduction Maritime Safety Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection Conclusion
Singapore’s Maritime Interests
• Malacca Straits is the main corridor between the Indian
Ocean and the South China Sea
• 70,000 vessel ply through the Straits annually
– Energy and raw material flows from west to east
– Finished goods flows from east to west
• Singapore is a central node
– World’s top container port
– World’s top bunkering port
– World’s third largest oil refining centre
• Singapore adopts a comprehensive approach and
develops an integrated response to maritime security
Introduction Maritime Safety
Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection
Conclusion
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Singapore’s Maritime Interest
The minimisation of disruption to shipping and port
activities and ensuring secure access to sea lanes through
aggressive policy prescription in the areas of maritime
safety, security environmental protection and international
law
Introduction Maritime Safety
Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection
Conclusion
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Maritime Safety
• Providing adequate aids to navigation
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Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS)
Mandatory Ship Reporting System (STRAITREP)
Vessel Traffic Information System(VTIS)
Electronic Navigation Charts (ENC)
Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)
Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS)
Automatic Identification System (AIS)
Introduction
Maritime Safety Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection
Conclusion
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Maritime Safety
• Providing Search and Rescue (SAR) services
– Singapore Pan for Search and Rescue (SAR) Services
– Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (MRCC) coordinates SAR
effort by utilising SAF and PCG assets
– Bilateral SAR Agreement with Indonesia
– SAREX Indopura with Indonesia
– Ratified the 1979 SAR Convention
Introduction
Maritime Safety Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection
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Maritime Security
• Protection of Critical Maritime Infrastructure
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Provided by the PCG and RSN to address both state and non-state threats
Continuous and extensive daily patrols
Army conducts patrols on Jurong Island
Accompanying Sea Security Teams (ASSeT) board selected ships
Selective escorts of merchant vessels
Designated ferry routes
Harbour Craft Transponder System (HARTS) for small harbour and
pleasure craft
– Scanning machines to detect illicit material in containers
– Comply with the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS)
– Participate in the Container Security Initiative (CSI)
Introduction
Maritime Safety Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection
Conclusion
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Maritime Security
• Defending Secure Access to Sea Lanes
– Extensive seabed surveillance for quick detection of mine-like
objects
– Bilateral mine clearance exercises and coordinated patrols with
both the Royal Malaysian Navy and Indonesian Navy
– The RSN and RSAF can protect and ensure access to sea lanes up
to a far distance from Singapore
– Defends the transit passage regime under UNCLOS
– Opposes any coastal state action to impose regimes which hamper
the right of transit passage
– Opposes Australia’s pilotage system in the Torres Strait
Introduction
Maritime Safety Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection
Conclusion
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Maritime Security
• Delimiting Maritime Boundaries
– Need for clear legal jurisdiction in maritime areas to prevent
exploitation of legal grey zones by malevolent individuals and
groups
– Singapore has sought to delimit its maritime boundaries with its
neighbours through bilateral and trilateral negotiation
– When negotiation fails, third party dispute settlement is adopted
– Example of referral of ownership of Pedra Branca to International
Court of Justice (ICJ)
Introduction
Maritime Safety Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection
Conclusion
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Marine Environmental Protection
• Port of Singapore and its surrounding waters are
extremely vulnerable to oil pollution
• Singapore adopts a comprehensive approach
– Prevention
– Implementation of strict regulations
– Enacting emergency plans for quick and effective clean-up
operations
• Mechanism to ensure adequate compensation for
pollution clean-up costs are recoverable
• Measures classified into legislative and contingency plans
Introduction
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Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection Conclusion
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Marine Environmental Protection
• Implementation of legislative measures
– Prevention of Pollution of Sea Act, 1971 provides for stiff
penalties for a person found guilty of polluting Singapore’s waters
– Singapore has acceded to major anti-pollution conventions
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MARPOL 73/78
OPRC 1990
OPRC-HNS 2000
CLC 92
Fund 92
1976 LLMC
Introduction
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Marine Environmental Protection
• Developing Contingency Plans
– Establishment of East Asia Response Private Limited (EARL)
• Global alliance with Oil Spill Response Limited (OSRL)
• Maintains and stores a wide range of oil spill response equipment
– Oil spill response programme undertaken by the Petroleum
Association of Japan (PAJ) in 1993
• Stockpiling and lending oil spill response equipment free of charge to government
agencies or parties upon their request
– Setting up of Singapore Oil Spill Response Centre (SOSRC) by
SembCorp Logistics Limited in 1994
• Able to deal with almost any type of marine accident or emergency
• Many companies have signed contracts with SOSRC to ensure a rapid response
• Maintains it own stockpile of oil pollution response equipment and maintains
equipment for PAJ
• Singapore is well prepared to tackle pollution in and around its waters
Introduction
Maritime Safety
Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection Conclusion
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Towards a Stable Maritime Regime
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Asia-Pacific Century poised to begin
Trade and energy flows into and within the region will increase
Increasing reliance on the sea as a mode of transport as a result
Surge in the use of the sea means that safeguarding sea lanes will be
an increasingly important task
• Creation of a stable maritime regime amongst regional countries
through cooperative efforts needs to be high on the regional political
agenda
• Three broad principles of cooperation endorsed by regional leaders
– Littoral states have the primary role
– Other stakeholders have important roles to play
– Consultation should be pursued and the rule of international law
observed
Introduction
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Maritime Security Marine Environmental Protection Conclusion
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Thank You
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