Meredith Brunkow Joanna Esker Stephanie Popovich
What is a Gang?
A gang is an organization of two or more individuals who form an alliance for a common purpose. The gang identifies with and claims territory in the community and engages individually or collectively in violence and other criminal activity.
Hidden America: Children caught in Chicago Gang War
History of Gangs
The exact origin and date of when street gangs are unknown.
Immigration starts migration of gangs.
The history of street gangs in the United States estimated to begin on the East Coast around 1783.
New York: Street gangs on the East Coast developed in three phases .
Chicago: Chicago emerged between the Civil War and the end of the 19th century.
Gangs flourished in Chicago in the early part of the 1900s.
Gangs grow in the West.
The existence of the Mexican population in the United States dates back to the 16th century.
Often were treated as second-class citizens and were told to go back to their home, Mexico.
Why do teens join gangs?
Safety Friendship Tradition Recognition Peer pressure
10 Most Dangerous Gangs in the World
Mara Salvatrucha (United States) Latin Kings (United States) Aryan Brotherhood (United States) Los Zetas (Mexico) 18 th Street Gang (United States) Bloods (United States) Yakuza (Japan) Wah Ching (United States) Crips (United States) Cosa Nostra (United States)
Best organized Latin gang in the world Formed in Chicago in the 1940s 18,000 members in Chicago alone Mexican-dominated gang Illegal money making, contract killing Colors = Black & Gold Symbol = Crown
Latin King Statistics
Average age of first firing a pistol – 11.0
Average age of seeing someone killed by gang violence – 11.5
Average age of joining the gang – 12.3
Average age expected to quit the gang – 25.1
Average age of expected death – 57.8
Founded in 1972 in Los Angeles African-American males Between 15,000 and 20,000 members Known for red clothing and bandanas Street-level distribution of crack cocaine and marijuana Auto theft, drive-by-shooting, extortion, homicide, identification fraud, and robbery Symbol = 5-pointed star
Founded in Los Angeles in 1969 One of the biggest crime groups in the world Bloods’ biggest rival African-American gang 30,000-35,000 members Blue clothes & blue bandanas Symbol: Six-point star and six-point crown Murders, robberies, drug dealings
Bloods vs. Crips
Two of the most violent gangs in U.S. history Crips formed in response to the Bloods South Central, Los Angeles Territory war “Vicious and never-ending” Battles were common on the streets, county jails, & prisons
Social Disorganization Theory Differential Association Theory Labeling Theory
Race and Ethnicity
Risk Factors—cut across racial and ethnic lines, including the negative consequences. Media representation Difficulties of assimilating Juvenile Delinquent vs. Youth at Risk
46 percent Hispanic/Latino, 35 percent African-American gang members, 11 percent white gang members, and 7 percent other race/ethnicity gang members.
Cease Fire/Cure Violence —Violence Interrupters Chicago Area Project [CAP] Al Reyes
http://www.themost10.com/10-most-dangerous-gangs in-the-world/ http://cryptome.org/gangs/bloods.pdf
Porter P, Matter R. Review of 'Gangs of America: The rise of corporate power and the disabling of democracy'. The Academy Of Management Review [serial online]. October 2004;29(4):689-691. Available from: PsycINFO, Ipswich, MA. Accessed November 11, 2013
Changing Course: Preventing Gang Membership. http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/prev entgangmembership/gangs-book_ch10-508.pdf
Gangs 101: Understanding the Culture of Youth Violence. http://gangs.umd.edu/Downloads/Prevention/Gan gs%20101%20 %20Understanding%20the%20Culture%20of%20Yout h%20Violence.pdf
Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Gang Prevention. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/231116.pdf