The age of Jackson- 1824-1840
The age of Jackson- 1824-1840
Key Tenets of
Belief in the common man
0 Jacksonians - great respect for the sense and abilities of common
0 Andrew Jackson - seen as common man who represented the
interests of people.
0 The Jacksonians expanded White male suffrage.
0 During the Federalist Era, caucuses of party leaders maintained
discipline and selected candidates. During the Jackson
administration, nominating conventions replaced legislative
0 The Jacksonians supported patronage- the policy of placing
political supporters in office.
0 Many Jacksonians believed that victorious candidates had a duty to
reward their supporters and punish their opponents.
Opposition to privileged elites
0 As champions of the common man, the Jacksonians despised the
special privileges of the Eastern elite.
0 Special privileges were anathemas to a government dedicated to
promoting and protecting the common man.
• Common man
The Tariff of Abominations and the
The Tariff of Abominations, 1828
0 The tariffs passed between 1816 and 1828 were the first tariffs in American
history whose primary purpose was protection.
0 The Tariff of 1828 caused John C. Calhoun to write the doctrine of
The Doctrine of Nullification
0 In the doctrine of nullification John C. Calhoun supported the states rights
and compared the tariff to the Kentucky and Virginia Acts.
0 Penning the name South Carolina Exposition and Protest, Calhoun said that a
state can deny a federal law if they consider it unconstitutional.
Opposition to Nullification
0 In the Webster- Hayne Debate, Daniel Webster presented his case with
extreme dislike towards nullification. Webster ended the powerful speech by
supporting a unified country
0 Jackson’s disapproval of nullification helped his image for a common man
with interests in the nation as a whole.
• Doctrine of nullification
This document shows Congress’s decision to pass the Tariff of 1832
The Bank War
Photo: Jackson fighting
the “bank” head on.
Biddle is represented by
the primary head with the
Hard money: Gold and
Soft money: Credit
0 Jackson was against the bill to recharter the Second Bank of the United
0 Jackson believed that the bank was an
upholder of special privileges. He
argues that the BUS was beneficial to
advocates of “hard money” and thus
inimical to the interests of the
common people who elected him.
0 Poor economy for future presidents
0 Unrepaid loans, leads to thousands of
citizens losing their savings.
0 The lack of a central banking
authority contributed to wild
expansion of money, risky land
speculation, and inflation.
0 Jackson’s war on the BUS initiated
and would lead to the two-party
Jackson and the Forced Removal of
Jackson and the Cherokees
0 Andrew Jackson was extremely against
0 John Marshall ruled in favor of the Indians,
but Jackson refused to reinforce the verdict,
famously saying, “John Marshall has made
his decision: now let him enforce it.”
The Trail of Tears
0 Jackson’s Native American policy resulted
in the removal of over 20,000 Cherokees
from their homeland to settlements across
the Mississippi River.
0 The trail of Tears refers to the route taken
by Native Americans as they were relocated
to the Indian Territory of Oklahoma.
0 Approximately one-quarter of the Cherokee
people died on the Trail of Tears.
Worcester vs. Georgia, 1831
Planters in the Antebellum South,
0 How the cash crop of cotton was
0 Eli Whitney’s creation of the cotton gin
0 Purchasing of slaves and expansion of land
of the few wealthy owners.
0 England’s participation in importing cotton.
0 A majority of the people living in the south
are not wealthy land owners. This was
designated to a few.
0 Few slaves are owned by white families
0 The south was controlled mostly by the few
wealthy land owners who had slaves,
money, and land.
Slaves in the Antebellum South,
0 Slaves were reduced to property, and given no civil
nor political rights.
0 They were still able to keep bonds. However if there
were to be an auction, families rarely would be sold
together and would be separated.
0 The large increase in the South’s slave labor force
because of the increasing amount of American-born
0 During the antebellum period, free African
Americans were able to accumulate some property in
spite of discrimination.
0 An argument for the slaves that the owners gave was
that their slaves still had more rights than those of
slaves elsewhere. Given the opportunity to marry
0 Few times did they revolt. They “damaged” the
owners in a separate way by pretending to be sick or
injured or just by working slower.
0 The majority of slaves modified their way of life
because of their condition and created a mix of the
$50 Reward for [illegible]
“[illegible]e runaway! where is he?
Daniel Lane after Henry Bibb in Louisville, Kentucky June 1838
The object was to sell Bibb in the Slave market but Bibb turned
the corner too quick for him & escaped. “
The Transportation Revolution
0 The Erie Canal was one of the most famous canals and helped produce
higher trade activity in the North.
0 Rivers were the most efficient way to transport goods and they were used
more efficiently when the invention of steamboats came about. They were
used regularly around the 1830’s.
0 Railroads were used to transport goods but there were no locomotives. The
first was built in 1825.
0 Ability to exchange goods at one-tenth the old price and only half the time.
0 The Southern farmers moved to the fresh soil in the west from the depleted
soil on the east coast.
0 Less impact on the south who were in more desolate areas already, then the
trade routes came through.
0 Circulation on the canals increased making it difficult to transport goods.
WOMEN IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA
THE CULT OF DOMESTICITY/REPUBLICAN
0 American women had limited education, were not able to vote,
sue, or many other things that men were given the right to do.
0 The concept of “republican motherhood” was that women are
not to have roles of authority and that they should educate their
children and perform the household duties.
0 The mother of families should be focused on religion and the up
keeping of the children.
FACTORY WORKERS IN LOWELL
0 During the first half of the nineteenth century, farm girls and
young women from throughout New England were recruited to
work in the textile factories in Lowell, Massachusetts.
0 Many were able to join organized demonstrations against their
0 Protested women’s rights.
ALTERING THE ROLE OF WOMEN
IN ANTEBELLUM AMERICA
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOMENS’S MOVEMENT
Closely associated with the temperance and anti-slavery movements.
The South was not as involved.
THE SENECA FALLS CONVENTION, 1848
0 Abolitionist activists and Quakers Elizabeth Cady Stanton (top) and Lucretia Mott
convene the Seneca Falls Convention on women's rights in a Wesleyan chapel at
Seneca, New York.
0 They all came to protest the mistreatment of women in social, economic, political, and
religious life. Its attendees adopted a statement known as the Declaration of Sentiments
(or the Seneca Falls Declaration).
0 This meeting gathered activists from a wide range of political and reform concerns:
antislavery, Free-Soil party supporters, temperance advocates
SUSAN B. ANTHONY
0 Susan B. Anthony (bottom) was an advocator for women’s rights. She and Santon
became a driving force for the rights movement. The duo assisted each other to create
0 Dorothea Dix was an activist that helped people with mental and emotional disabilities.
0 Dix was NOT involved in the women’s rights movement.
ABOLITION AND ABOLITIONISTS
THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING
The Second Great Awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm, led by
travelling preachers such as Charles Finney and Lyman Beecher.
Stressed the philosophy of salvation through good deeds.
The Second Great Awakening played an important role in making
Americans aware of the moral issues posed by slavery.
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY
The American Colonization Society worked to return freed slaves to the
west coast of Africa. It was primarily led by middle class men and
Established by Robert Finley in 1816.
WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON
Garrison was the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper the
Liberator and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Garrison’s support of women’s rights caused the American Anti-Slavery
Society to split into rival factions.
Stressed nonviolent and passive resistance.
Garrison started off as Frederick Douglass’ mentor, but eventually their
separate views led to a bitter dispute.
Frederick Douglass was the most prominent Black abolitionist during the
Although best known as an abolitionist, Douglass championed equal
rights for women and Native Americans.
SARAH MOORE GRIMKE
Grimke was one of the first women to publically support both abolition
and women’s rights.
She teamed with her sister Angelina to defy standards held for women at
the time, fully expressing their feminist and abolitionist views.
(Top to bottom: Garrison, Douglass, Grimke)
0 Transcendentalism is a simple idea that both
men and women have equal knowledge
about themselves and the world around them
that "transcends" or goes beyond what they
can see, hear, taste, touch or feel.
0 Ralph Waldo Emerson, the leading light of
the group, believed that people were
naturally good and that everyone's potential
Basic visual representation of transcendentalism
100,000 individuals formed utopian communities in an effort to create perfect societies in
widespread happiness. The best known utopian communities included the Mormons, Brook Farm,
New Harmony, the Shakers and the Oneida Community.
0 McGuffey Readers were the best known and most widely used
school books in the nineteenth century, rivaling the Bible in sales
0 Newspapers and mass spectator sports thrived during the first
half of the nineteenth century.
0 Horace Mann worked to improve the educational system in all
0 American literature emerged. Used recent history of the
Revolutionary War and other sources for books.
THE HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL
A school of painting was founded by
Thomas Cole, called the Hudson River
School. This school produced works of art
that depicted American landscapes and the
coexistence of humans and nature.
The Hudson River School was America’s
fist coherent school of art.
Painting by Thomas Cole