Louis Philippe’s Domestic Policy
• • • • • • • • • • • •
Demands for parliamentary reform and rise of socialism and bonapartism
There were many political and social changes in France under the reign of Louis Philippe … The king could no longer suspend laws nor rule by decree (royal power) The assembly could propose legislation The electorate increased from 94,000 to almost 130,000 The power of the church was removed and Catholicism was reduced Religion was tolerated and even more so became practised by the majority Because of such political and social reform, the constitution of 1830 became known as ‘The party of movement’ However, due to the focus of parliamentary reform being in favour and beneficial to the upper middle class (Bourgeoisie), socialism and Bonapartism started to rise due to their demands for parliamentary reform…
Socialism and Bonapartism
Fought for the return of Napoleon as ruler of France Wanted to return the days of glory • •
Supported the Bourbons and royalist power Opposed the Orleanist Monarchy and instead supported the son of the Duc de Berri (murdered in 1820) • •
Lower middle class frustrated with their place under the reign of LP’s constitution Gained the support of the poorer classes who wanted a more democratic system Attempted to proceed with 2 rebellions (or coups) against LP— however, both coups failed in 1836 and 1840 • Attempted to lead a coup in 1832 but failed Each group greatly disapproved of the reign of LP as, from the start, they were not happy with an Orleanist becoming the legitimate heir to the throne Thus they posed as a dominant threat to King LP
Early rebellions and economic development
• • • • • LP was well aware of the undercurrent of unrest throughout his reign, but rather than address it, he tended to accept it as something beyond his control Political frustration was one of the key factors in the fall of LP in 1848 As well as this, bad weather led to poor harvests and caused rising food prices which resulted in bakeries and food shops being looted.
Signs of discontent fluctuated along with economic circumstances By 1847, economic and social conditions in France were attracting widespread interests as the government was unable or unwilling to address issues.
Different ministries-Guizot and Lassiez Faire
• • LP relied on ministers of similar views as himself—he used traditional means of influence to ensure that the chamber of deputies supported his chosen leaders 1830-47= LP was unable to increase the number of royal officials who sat as deputies from 142 to 193 out of a total of 459 seats Minister Role Jaques Laffitte Casimir Perier • • • • • • • • • • • • • Led LP’s 1 st ministry Regarded the July revolution as only favouring further reform However, rioting and disorder continued because of this Laffitte dismissed in March 1831 Led LP’s 2 nd ministry Was a traditional liberal Regarded the July revolution as nothing more than a change in monarch 1831—Perier carefully managed the July elections in order to return a chamber prepared to use force if necessary to curb/reduce unrest French historian Bertier de Sauvigny stated: ‘Perier typified monied Bourgeoisie, loathing disorder and he brought to the task of governing a force of willpower and energy that was wildly passionate’ He demanded unquestionable obedience from his colleagues and even LP!
He managed to reduce the unrest and set the regime on firm foundations Perier died in march 1832 of cholera May 1832-october 1840– there were no more than 10 ministries Adolph Thiers Francois Guizot and the Duc de Brogile • • • • • • • One of the most influential spokespeople in the chamber Thiers brought the LP to power However, his attitudes towards the king were slightly different as he believed he should act as a figurehead Thiers was dismissed is 1840 Also the most influential spokespeople in the chamber Brogile and Guizot were very much content with the constitutional system King LP now relied on Guizot who dominated politics
• Being an Orleanist, LP believed that education should be granted to all He changed education in a way that was to provide French society with an opportunity to strive academically and experience new ways of learning Thus in order to improve education, LP achieved the following the following Removed the dominant influence of the catholic church on education *successful Had the Guizot Law of 1833 passed= this gave the minister of education (who at this point was firmly separated from religion), the right to allow all communes, i.e. different groups of people such as socialists, to run primary schools for boys * successful By 1840, approximately 30,000 communes were allowed to run schools * partially successful-only 30,000 out of 37,000 communes allowed to run schools Lay teachers tolerated under LP’s education policy Male teachers received teacher training courses at the newly introduced
freedom to teach in their own terms and no under the influence or catholic teachings (training colleges) *successful-teachers no longer had to be catholic or monks and other such catholic figureheads. Also teachers had the LP gave boys whose parents were poor, full entitlement to free education rights. However, the poor were still taken into some consideration. *partially successful-some children still had to pay a fee. Also, education based its primary focus on boys rather than girls and women who were restricted of their The masses, i.e. lower and middle class were granted the right to attend primary schools * successful-fairer opportunity for all By 1848, 3.25 million children attended primary schools opportunity *partially successful-despite such an increase in children attending school, a ¼ of boys and vast majority of girls never attended school or received any form of educational Basic literacy improved dramatically and rapidly *very successful-under the reign of King Charles X in 1824, only 45% of army conscripts could read-under the reign of LP in 1830, this figure rose to 67%!
It is evident that education was becoming more lenient and slightly equalised among the masses, however, LP faced problems due to the opposition towards his education policy…
• Opposition… Jesuits (catholic group) were still alive and present in education and ran schools for the rich notables and aristocrats *unsuccessful LP feared the influence of the Jesuits and wanted to distance himself from them Influence of Jesuits lead to resistance in 1843 by students and supporters of LP: Quinet and Michelet—they attempted to expel the Jesuits