Chapter 7 Livestock Nutrition

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Transcript Chapter 7 Livestock Nutrition

Chapter 7 Livestock Nutrition
Classification and use of
Classifications of Feeds
• Air dry roughages contain more than 18%
crude fiber and less than 60% total
digestible nutrients (TDN)
• Air dry concentrates generally contain less
than 18% crude fiber and more than 60%
• Feeds that have more than 80% dry matter
(DM) are air-dry, while higher than 80%
they are called high moisture feeds.
International Feed Nomenclature
• Feed names follow the International Feed
Vocabulary , the AAFCO have designated
official names and definitions for many of
the feeds used in the USA.
• Feed names are determined by using the
following descriptors.
• Origin of feed both scientific and common.
• Part eaten by animal.
International Feed Nomenclature
• Process(es) and treatments(s) applied to the
feed before eaten by animal.
• Stage of maturity when harvested.
• Cutting or crop.
• Grade or quality designations.
• Nutritive value of feed is dependent upon
time harvested, table 7-2 illustrates this
International Feed Classes
• There are eight classes of feeds, based on
composition and use.
• In borderline cases, feed is placed in a class
according to its most common use in
feeding practices.
International Feed Number
• Feeds are identified by a six digit number.
• The first number is the feed class number
and the remaining five are the IFN.
• The IFN links the name with the chemical
and biological data.
• The IFN is useful for computer formulation
and diet formulation in this text.
Forms of Feed
• The three types of feed are dry, green and
high moisture.
• Dry feeds are hay, grains oilseed, straw,
stover, corn cobs, corn husks, soybean,
• Green feeds include pasture and green chop.
• High moisture feeds are high moisture
grains, haylage, wet byproduct feeds, roots,
tubers and silages.
Table 7-2
• Know preferred term, definition and
comparable terms.
• These are all for plants that bloom.
• The two types of roughages are grass and
• Legumes have nodules on their roots that
have bacteria whom fixate nitrogen.
• Legumes include, alfalfa, clovers, birdsfoot
trefoil, bean and pea hay.
• Grass roughages include timothy, brome,
orchard, reed canary, fescue, sudan, millet,
• The three kinds of concentrates include
grains, supplements and byproduct feeds.
• Common grains are corn, oats, barley,
sorghum (milo) and wheat.
• Supplements are protein feeds, minerals and
• Supplements are either from an animal or
vegetable origin.
• Animal origin supplements include tankage,
meat scraps, meat, bonemeal, fishmeal,
dried skim milk.
• Vegetable origin protein supplements
include soybean meal, soybeans, cottonseed
meal, peanut oil meal corn gluten,
safflower meal, sesame oil, sunflower meal,
linseed meal.
• Urea is a non protein supplements, neither
animal nor vegetable origin. Used primarily
in feeding ruminants.
• Minerals are generally some combination of
calcium and phosphorus with trace minerals
• Salt blocks may also have trace minerals
• Vitamin supplements are necessary to
provide vitamins in a lacking ration.
• Byproduct feeds from the milling and
brewing industries are also used in feeding.
• Byproduct feeds include wheat bran, rice
bran, wheat middlings, rye middlings,
molasses, brewer’s grain, beet pulp,
screenings and malt sprouts.
Table 7-3
• Know all 8 class numbers and class
denominations and explanations for feed.
• Pay particular attention to number 1, dry
forages, 2 pasture and range plants, fresh
forages, 4 energy feeds and 5 protein
• Poor nutrition is a major contributing factor
to reproductive failure in livestock.
• Production of sperm and quality of semen is
determined by the quality of the ration.
• Males that are too fat may become
temporarily or permanently sterile.
• Nutrient requirements for pregnant females
are most critical during the last third of the
gestation period, when the fetus grows the
• During the growth period, there is a
substantial increase in the size f muscle,
bones, internal organs and other body parts.
• Proper is growth is necessary for efficient
producers when they mature.
• Full genetic potential cannot be reached if
the animal is not fed a well balanced ration.
• Horse cannot perform to capacity if they are
stunted or suffer from skeletonal injuries
during growth.
• Young growing animals have a more
rigorous nutritional requirement than do
mature animals.
• Nutritional deficiencies are reflected more
quickly and more seriously in young
animals than in mature animals.
• Protein quality must be higher and Ca and P
needs are greater.
• The younger the animal, the greater is its
need for good quality protein because of the
rapid growth of muscle at this time.
• A shortage of total digestible nutrients or
net energy during growth will result in
slower growth or smaller size when animals
• Mineral requirements are higher during
growth because of the rapid bone growth.
• A shortage of protein, energy, vitamins or
minerals will result in animals with poor
health, developing sicknesses easier,
performing at a lower level and not
• A maintenance ration is one that maintains
basic life processes without any work or
production being done.
• A maintenance ration must supply:
• Heat to maintain body temperature.
• Energy for vital functions an a minimum
amount of movement;
• Small amounts of protein, minerals and
• Oxidation of food in the digestive tract and
of nutrients in the muscles produce heat.
• In easily digested feeds such as corn, about
one third of the total energy available is
converted into heat by the digestive process.
• A higher proportion of the total energy
found in roughages is converted into heat by
• Maintenance rations for mature animals,
except swine and poultry can be mostly
• Even more energy is needed for animals
that move a lot more, for example to water
and feed.
• A maintenance ration with little net energy
is not sufficient for a maintenance ration.
• Generally simple stomached animals, swine
and poultry, cannot derive enough energy
from roughages.
• Horse can do great on a high energy roughage
ration because they can utilize the roughage
because of their cecum.
• A maintenance requirement is relative to its
amount of body surface, as well as its weight. An
animal weighing 1200 pounds does not require
twice as much TDN as 2 animals each weighing
600# each.
• This is because the major heat loss is
fromradiation and conduction from the body
surface and the 1,200 # animald does not have
twice as much body surface ans the 2 600#
• However, the heavier animal will require
more energy for standing and moving than
the smaller animals, thus weight is a factor
for determining the maintenance
• Protein is required because there is some
breakdown of protein in the body tissues
each day.
• There is a daily loss of Ca and P so a small
amount of these are also needed.
• NaCl, vitamins A and D are also needed in
maintenance rations.
• It is easier to maintain your animals if you
do not let them turn to far down, it will cost
you money in feed and supplements to raise
their health back up to a productive level.
Finishing for Market and Show
• Beef, swine, lambs and broilers that are fed
for meat need nutrients above the
maintenance requirements for fattening.
• Juiciness, flavor, digestibility and nutritive
value of meat is improved by marbling, the
stored fat in the lean meat tissues of the
Finishing for Market and Show
• Nutrients for fattening animals come from
carbohydrates and lipids in the rations.
• Protein not needed for repair for body
tissues and other needs of the animals may
also be converted into body fat.
• Most animals are finished for market while
they are still growing and young.
Finishing for Market and Show
• Rapid gains in fattening livestock depend
on a ready supply of TDN or energy,
protein, minerals and vitamins in the ration.
• Feed efficiency is higher when the ration is
properly balanced for fattening livestock.
• Animals being fitted for show purposes are
fed a liberal supply of carbohydrates and
fats, usually through the addition of more
Finishing for Market and Show
• Mature animals being fitted for show need
little additional protein, minerals and
vitamins above the maintenance
• However, young, growing animals must be
fed more liberal amounts to reach the
desired level of finish for show.
• All milk cows have a high need for TDN,
when expecting a milk cow to produce more
milk they will require more protein, energy,
vitamins and minerals.
• Ewes producing lambs wool and mohair
will also require a ration higher in protein,
energy, vitamins and minerals.
• Production of work is mainly limited to
• Riding and racing require additional
nutrients for optimum performance.
• As the amount of work increase, so does the
TDN or energy requirements.
• Protein, mineral and vitamin requirements
of mature working horses are only a little
greater than maintenance rations.
• Animals require additional nutrients
(especially energy) in relation to the kind of
terrain they are on and whether they are in
• Animals on pasture, the distance to feed and
water, animals on level land will not expend
as much energy as those on a rough terrain.
Underutilized sources of feed
• There are many food stuffs listed as
underutilized, however many are expensive
and can be hard to obtain.
• Industrial food processing wastes, nonfood
Industrial wastes, forest residues, animal
wastes, crop residues and aquatic plants.
• Out of all of these the most practical (from
an economical standpoint and useable view)
are forest residues, crop residues and
aquatic plants.
Underutilized feedstuffs
• Grains roughages, to this day remain the
best feedstuffs for growth, reproduction and
maintenance of animals.
• Crop residues are one of the most widely
used sources of maintenance rations used
today, however, they will need to be
supplemented with protein, vitamins and