Biomes Earth can be divided into Biomes

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Transcript Biomes Earth can be divided into Biomes

Biomes

Earth can be divided into

Biomes

Division into Biomes

Latitudes define some biomes

Categories of Biome

Primary Biomes : Tropical Rain Forest Tropical Dry Forest Tropical Savanna Temperate Grassland Desert Temperate Woodland/Shrubland Temperate Forest Northwestern Coniferous Forest Boreal Forest Tundra

Other Land Areas : Mountain Ranges Polar Ice Caps

Tropical Rainforest Biome

EMERGENT LAYER

The tallest trees are the emergents, towering as much as 200 feet above the forest floor with trunks that measure up to 16 feet around. Most of these trees are broad-leaved, hardwood evergreens. Sunlight is plentiful up here. Animals found are eagles, monkeys, bats and butterflies.

CANOPY LAYER

This is the primary layer of the forest and forms a roof over the two remaining layers. Most canopy trees have smooth, oval leaves that come to a point. It's a maze of leaves and branches. Many animals live in this area since food is abundant. Those animals include: snakes, toucans and treefrogs.

UNDERSTORY LAYER

Little sunshine reaches this area so the plants have to grow larger leaves to reach the sunlight. The plants in this area seldom grow to 12 feet. Many animals live here including jaguars, red-eyed tree frogs and leopards. There is a large concentration of insects here.

FOREST FLOOR

It's very dark down here. Almost no plants grow in this area, as a result. Since hardly any sun reaches the forest floor things begin to decay quickly. A leaf that might take one year to decompose in a regular climate will disappear in 6 weeks. Giant anteaters live in this layer.

Tropical Rainforest Biome

-Home to more species than any land biome

Abiotic Factors

: Hot and wet year round, nutrient-poor soils

Dominant Plants

: Evergreen trees, ferns, large vines, orchids

Dominant Wildlife:

Sloths, tapirs, jaguars, anteaters monkeys, toucans, parrots, butterflies, beetles , piranhas, reptiles, boa constrictors, anacondas

Tropical Dry Forests

Parts of Africa, South and Central America, Mexico, India, Australia, and Tropical Islands

Tropical Dry Forests

Abiotic Factors: Warm year round, altering wet and dry seasons, rich soils subject to erosion Dominant Plants: trees aloes, succulents, deciduous Dominant Wildlife: tigers, monkeys, elephants, termites, hog deer, spot billed pellican

Tropical Savanna

Eastern Africa, Southern Brazil, North Australia

Tropical Savanna

Abiotic Factors: Warm Temp, Seasonal Rainfall, compact soil, frequent lightning fires Dominant Plants: perennial grasses, drought tolerant/fire resistant trees and shrubs Dominant Wildlife: lions, cheetahs, hyenas, aardvarhs, elephants, giraffes, zebras, baboons, eagles, storks, termites

Australia Morocco

Desert

Cali Tunisia

Arica, Asia, Middle East, U.S., Mexico, Aussie, South America

Desert

Desert

Abiotic Factors: Low Percipitation, variable temperatures, soils rich in minerals but poor organic material Dominant Plants: short growth cycles cacti, succulants, plants w/ Dominant Wildlife: mountain lions, bobcats, mule deer, kangaroo rats, bats, owls, hawks, roadrunners, ants beetles, wasps, rattlesnakes, lizards

Temperate Grassland

Central Asia, North America, Austrailia, Central Europe, Part of South America

Temperate Grassland

Abiotic Factors: Warm to hot summers, cold winters, moderate, seasonal precipitation, fertile soil, occasional fires Dominant Plants: perennial grasses and herbs- many are very resistant Dominant Wildlife: coyotes, badgers, mule deer, rabbits, bison, hawks, owl, grasshoppers, snakes

Temperate Woodland/Shrubland

Western Coast of North and South America, Mediterranean Sea, South Africa, and Australia

Temperate Woodland/Shrubland

Abiotic Factors: hot, dry summers, cool, moist winters, thin, nutrient poor soils Dominant Plants: woody evergreen shrubs, herbs that grow during winter and die in the summer Dominant Wildlife: coyotes, foxes, bobcats, rabbis, squirrels, mice, hawks, warblers, spiders

Temperate Forest

Eastern U.S., Southeastern Canada, Most of Europe, Part of Japan, China, and Australia

Temperate Forest Abiotic Factors:

Cold-Moderate Winters, warm summers, year round precipitation, fertile soils

Dominant Plants:

Dediduous trees, some conifers, shrubs, herbs, ground has mosses and ferns

Dominant Wildlife:

deer, black bears, bobcats, squirrels, raccoons, skunks, turkeys

Northwestern Coniferous Forest

Abiotic Factors: mild temp, lots of precipitation-fall, winter, spring, cool dry summer, rocky acidic soil Dominant Plants: Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Redwood Dominant Wildlife: bears, elk, deer, beavers, owls, weasels Location: North California- Alaska (Northwest)

Boreal Forest/Taiga

North America, Asia, North Europe

Boreal Forest/Taiga

Abiotic Factors: Long cold winters, short, mild summers, moderate precipitation, high humidity, acidic, nutrient poor soil Dominant Plants: spruce, fir, small berry shrubs Dominant Wildlife: lynx, timber wolf, moose, beavers, and song birds

North America, Asia, Europe

Tundra

Tundra

Abiotic Factors: Strong winds, low precipitation, short soggy summers, long, cold, and dark winters, permafrost, bad soil Dominant Plants: mosses, lichens, sedges, and short grasses, Dominant Wildlife: musk ox, artic foxes, caribous, lemmins (small rodents)

Biomes

• Heavily modified by human activity • Example: US grasslands barely exist.

• Mostly has been taken over by agriculture.

• So Biomes defined by potential, not actual plants & animals • Defined by climate of region - Combination of temperature & rainfall most important factors.