Oral presentations provide an opportunity to share the results of
research with a large audience, here are some tips.
• Don't try to fit every detail of the research into the presentation.
Provide an adequate summary, but remember the limitations of oral
presentation formats. People will only be able to digest a certain amount
of material in 10-15 minutes. If you stick too closely to details, the
audience will lose the point of the presentation.
• Make use of Power Point slides. Let the audience follow along the
outline of the presentation as you go. If a person temporarily loses track
of the presentation, they can always catch up by looking at the
presentation slide notes you provide.
• A standard format is 15 minutes for each presenter. Plan for 12
minutes of presentation and three minutes of questions. In your 12
minutes, spend around four minutes setting up the problem, two
discussing the methodology, two discussing results, and four for the
• Memorize the first few minutes of the presentation word for word. This will
get you started and help with the initial nervousness.
• Do not read your talk. You will bore your audience and you will make it
impossible for them to pay attention. Instead, use Power Point slides as a
memory cue and speak spontaneously.
• Have notes prepared. If you panic and are unable to remember what you
wanted to say, you can use them for backup. You can consult your notes
without reading them to the audience. It's acceptable to pause between
sentences and think about what you want to say next.
• Do not talk in a monotone.
• Anything in a Power Point slide should be printed neatly in large, bold type.
It is very frustrating struggling to read the slides during a presentation.
• Keep your visual aids simple. The audience has a limited amount of time to
read and understand them. If everyone is struggling to understand what's on the
slide, nobody will be listening to you.
• Never present a page full of statistics or text and tell the audience to read it
for themselves. If it's important for the audience to read something, read it to
them. If doing this makes you feel like you're spending too much time reading
to the audience, you are. Present fewer pages of statistics.
• Do not assume that the audience will be able to see something just because
you put it in a slide. There may be obstructions, or it may be hard to see from
the back of the room. Always describe what you're presenting.
• Do not hover around the projector. Never point to anything on the projector,
point to the screen. Standing by the projector is likely to block the audience's
•Feel free to move around, but so much that you distract the audience.
• Rehearse the whole presentation at least once, and try to rehearse in front of
an audience. Let the test audience help you decide if the talk is clear.
• Dress up for the presentation.
You will probably be nervous before the presentation. Here are some tips
to help settle your nerves.
• Rehearse thoroughly. If you know what you want to say, you will feel better
about saying it. Also keep these things in mind.
• Fifteen minutes goes by very fast when you're speaking.
• If you don't know the answer to someone's question, you can say "I don't know." You
can also try to involve the person asking the question in speculating about the answer.
• You can direct the audience's questions to topics you know. For example, you might
say "the exact details of this procedure aren't essential, but if you would like to know
them, we can discuss it in the question period." Try not to do this too much, because it
can be annoying.
Here are some ideas for creating a presentation:
Video tape someone you consider to be an expert
Interview a teachers, students and administrators on their use of technology
Create a timeline
Create a flyer or a brochure to demonstrate what you have learned
Do some case studies (school issues, local issues, community concerns, etc.)
Write a FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) on your topic
Use a graph or chart to show information gathered
Create a Power Point presentation
Create a homepage for your presentation with links to appropriate resources
What ever you choose to do, do it with thought, organization, and planning.
Use eye-catching colors and materials. Always give credit for information
or images collected from other sources. Be enthusiastic!
The following slides are
examples of Charts and
Graphs that could be used to
summarize complex data in a
graphical form suitable for
Of 100 AnyTown High School Students
• 67 plan to attend college
• 6 plan to enter the military
• 18 plan to seek employment
• 9 are undecided
Student Scores on Assembly Modeling Exam
Third Quarter Results
Solid Models Completed
1999 - 2000 School Year
Comparison of Career Choices
Class of 2000
Mock-up: A physical model constructed from inexpensive
materials to represent a design concept. The model is
created is proportional but not necessarily to scale.
Prototype: A full size, functional model of a product completed before the
product is manufactured, which allows testing and analysis prior to
•Power Point slide presentations
Microsoft PowerPoint is an extremely versatile multi-media tool
enabling the user to create colorful, interesting presentations.
Solid Model Examples
Animation Clip From an Assembly Model
Click each image to
see the animation.
HTML: Hypertext Markup Language
The standard language used to create web pages.
Engineering Notebook: a document used by an engineer to
record notes, sketches and other design information.
Sample Specification Sheet
Sample Technical Drawing
A Technical Report is information which relates to the research, development,
engineering, evaluation, production, operation, use, and maintenance of a product,
process or service. The following text is an abstract of a 200+ page technical report.
Connecting Homes to the Internet: An Engineering Cost Model of Cable vs.
Using the World Wide Web at 28.8 Kbps (or less) can be a frustrating experience:
a multimedia page that takes a fraction of a second to download at Ethernet
speeds takes many seconds at modem rates. Two enhancements to existing
infrastructure have the potential to deliver more satisfactory residential Internet
access: ISDN telephone service, and upgraded cable TV networks. While ISDN
dedicates bandwidth to each user, cable networks support a shared bandwidth
approach similar to that used in computer Local Area Networks (LANs). This
report describes the technologies and evaluates qualitative differences between
the two approaches. The report finds that cable's shared-bandwidth approach has
superior economic characteristics. Cable-based access also has better service
characteristics: it can support both full-time Internet connections and higher peak
band widths, such as a 4 Mbps cable service that provides thirty-two times the
peak bandwidth of ISDN. Furthermore, monopoly control of residential
communications infrastructure—whether manifest as high ISDN tariffs or simple
lack of interest from cable operators--limits business opportunities for Internet
Evaluation of Oral and Written Presentations