The Cold War in the 1960’s - Madera Unified School

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Transcript The Cold War in the 1960’s - Madera Unified School

The Cold War: 1960’s Version
A. The Election of 1960
The Nominees
Both born in the 20th century!
• Richard Nixon (Rep)
• Vice President
• “Kitchen Debates”
• John F. Kennedy (Dem)
• Called on a “New
• Problem: Catholicism
The Debates
• A series of 4
• 1st time debates
aired on television
•Kennedy took the
lead because of
The Results
• Kennedy barely won – 0.1% victory
• IL & TX were contested states
• Nixon refused to call for a recount – it would
cause a “Constitutional Crisis”
Kennedy’s Inauguration
"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can
do for your country."
B. Flexible
Eisenhower’s New Look Program
• Ike concentrated
on the buildup of
nuclear weapons
• Cut government
spending on more
conventional (nonnuclear) weapons
• Part of “Massive
Flexible Response
• Felt the “New Look”
limited the U.S.
• Wanted to be able
to respond without
resorting to nuclear
• Increased spending
on conventional
armed forces
• Mutually Assured
Destruction (MAD)
C. Bay of Pigs (1961)
Bay of Pigs – April 15-21, 1961
• Planned by Eisenhower
• Kennedy approved
• 1400 CIA trained Cuban
Exiles invaded Cuba to
overthrow Castro
• Most either captured or
killed by Castro
• Huge embarrassment for
• Cuba now wary of the U.S.
Giron. First defeat of (the)Yankee Imperialism in Latin America.
D. Operation Mongoose
The Plot (a.k.a. The Cuban Project)
CIA planned attack to sabotage Castro
Either to overthrow and/or kill him
Kennedy approved
Ultimately unsuccessful
E. The
Peace Corps
• Est. in 1961
• Sent volunteers to
3rd world nations
• Alternative to
• One of Kennedy’s
most popular and
lasting program
• Since 1961, over
187,000 have served
F. Alliance for Progress
“Latin American Marshall Plan”
• Created in 1961
• Provided $20 billion to Latin America
• Goal was to contain Cuban communist
• Close the gap between rich and poor
• Ultimately failed
– Too few Latin American govts helped
– Too few dollars ($10/Latin American)
– After Kennedy, no presidential support
G. The Berlin Wall
• Constructed in August 1961 to stop the flee
of Berliners from East to West
• Feared there was a “Brain Drain”
Kennedy’s Visit
• Visited June 1963
• Speech given
criticizing communism
• Used Wall as an
example of its
– “Ich bin ein Berliner"
“Freedom has many difficulties and
democracy is not perfect, but we have never
had to put a wall up to keep our people in."
H. Cuban Missile
• October 14, 1962 – American U-2 plane
spied missiles in Cuba
• Kennedy alerted on Oct 16 – begins 13
days where the U.S. feared a nuclear
war would begin
• October 22 - Kennedy decided to blockade
Cuba from the Soviet Union to avert war
End of the Crisis
• October 26 – Khrushchev stated the
missiles would be removed if the U.S.
would not invade Cuba, end blockade, &
remove missile from Turkey
• Oct 28, Kennedy agrees but only
publicly agrees to first two conditions
• War was averted, but changed
Kennedy’s attitude toward the Cold War
Establishment of the Hotline
• Direct phone line from Washington to
• 24 hour access to avert crisis
• First used in 1967
I. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
• Banned atmospheric testing of nuclear
• Developed to slow the arms race and
stop the excessive rate of nuclear fall
out in the atmosphere