#### Transcript 投影片 1 - National Chiao Tung University

Photo-induced Multi-Mode Coherent Acoustic Phonons in the Metallic Nanoprisms Po-Tse Tai1, Pyng Yu2, Yong-Gang Wang2 and Jau Tang* 2, 3 1Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan 2Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 3Institute of Photonics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan Abstract We report here experimental measurements of photoinduced ultrafast structural dynamics in metallic nanoprisms. Metallic nanoparticles could be strongly coupled to local optical fields via surface plasmon resonance (SPR). They are the best candidates for optoelectronic applications, including sub-wavelength optical devices and data storage, as well as for biomedical applications, including fluorescence labels, sensors and contrast enhancers in photoacoustic imaging. Anisotropic Thermal Expansion Model for Triangular Plate Introduction •Metal Nanoparticles & SPR Since the SPR the metal nanoparticle have strong coupling with optical field, and allow the higher linear and nonlinear optical effect. In our lab, we have ability to synthesize different size and shape nanoparticles. •Lasr-Heating Process fcc (1,1,1) triangular plate 1 Z 2 3 5 4 time Laser Tips effect 6 Metal 100 fs First, the laser pulse heat up the surface electrons, then the energy would spread through thermal diffusion and electron ballistic motion. After several pico-seconds, the hot electron relax energy to phonon through electron-phonon coupling. The electron and phonon temperature change induces thermal stress. Two different types of thermal stresses work on the lattice and cause the lattice vibration. 7 ballsitic and diffusive dynamics of electrons 1 ps Electrons heat up of surface electrons by photons 9 8 11 12 13 10 14 15 10 ps heat up of phonons via e-p interactions 100 ps From JPC B 107,668 (2003) thermal relaxation of phonons Quantitative Model : Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) Model + TTM We combined two kinds of impulsive forces, namely, FD and FI, representing the Localized field enhance thermal stress from laser-heated electrons and lattice with a 2-D FPU model to simulate lattice vibration. Two vibration modes, which are breathing mode and higher absorption totally symmetric mode, can be directly observed. thermal gradient anisotropic thermal expansion •Two-Temperature Model Te z, t k e Te z, t - gTe z, t - Tp z, t Sz, t t z z 2 Cp Tp z, t k L 2 Tp z, t - gTp z, t - Te z, t t z Simulation Results (a) 50.1 Electron temperature Phonon temperature + Gruneisen relationship •FPU model (b) 50 breathing mode totally symmetratic mode 50.0 40 d P zn n dt m d P0 F0 t - gP0 - m 2 z 0 - z1 dt d P n Fn t - gPn - m 2 2zn - z n -1 - z n 1 dt d P N FN t - gPN - m 2 z n - z n -1 dt 49.9 Period (ps) Thermal stress Bisector (nm) Ce T 49.8 49.7 30 20 10 49.6 simulation data fitted curve (n 1, 2 ...N -1) 49.5 0 50 100 150 0 200 30 40 50 70 80 90 Bisector (nm) Time (ps) Femtosecond Laser System 60 (a) Excitation of acoustic oscillations of triangular plate with 49.8 nm bisector and (b) the oscillation periods versus triangle bisector. Conventional pump-probe setup & up-conversion setup Optical Control of Coherent Acoustic Vibration •Ti:sapphire oscillator + regenerating amplifier + OPA •> 10mJ/pulse @ 1KHz (320nm~2000nm) •Time resolution ~100fs (Pulse duration 90fs) Time-Resolved Experiment - Thin Film UEM Experiment 0.0010 Al, N = 67 T = 18 ps 0.0005 Fermi-Pasta-Ulam Model + TTM Experimental UEC data 0.0000 0 10 20 30 The experimental data of time-resolved electron diffraction by Nie at al. for a polycrystalline aluminum thin film of about 20 nm in thickness (open circle). The data curve for the changes of the diffraction ring position can be fitted by using the FPU-TTM model (blue line). Time (ps) Simulation Model & Experimental Results Electron Grüneisen Parameter ge Gold film (a) 2 4.1 mJ/cm 2 5.0 mJ/cm 2 20 40 60 80 100 120 30 ge=1.6 ge=2.2 Exp data 260 240 Copper film (b) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ge = 0.9 T/T (a.u.) 0 TTM-FPU model provides a better quantitative description of metal laser-heating and a deeper physical insight into coherent acoustic wave excitation in metallic thin films. 2 1.38 mJ/cm 2 0.92 mJ/cm 2 10 We 20 30 40 Delay Time (ps) 20 15 10 50 60 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 The 2 25 5 (a) Pump-probe data of a 50-nm gold film at different laser fluence and the fitted solid-line curves by the TTM-FPU model. (b) The dependence of the initial phase on pump fluence. The initial phase data represented by open circles with an error bar determined by fitting the experimental curves to a damping sinusoid. The dependence of the phase on pump fluence allows us to determine the electronic Grüneisen parameter. 1.84 mJ/cm 120 3 illustrated a non-thermal equilibrium approach to measure ge unambiguously using optical pumpprobe experiments. 4 5 6 e-ph Pump fluence (mJ/cm2) Delay Time (ps) 2.3 mJ/cm (b) 35 140 ge=1.0 mode weight (%) 3.2 mJ/cm 280 Initial Phase (degree) 2 R/R (a.u.) 2.3 mJ/cm (a) 0 •Photo-induced acoustic phonons of the nanoprisms, which are breathing mode and totally symmetric mode, have been studied. •We used two properly timed pump pulses to directly excite totally symmetric mode of the nanoprisms. phase (degree) s / s T = 29.4 ps 7 (ps) 8 9 10 11 3 4 5 6 e-ph 7 8 9 10 11 (ps) (a) Initial phases depend on the electron phonon coupling time. We arranged the numerical results by the open squares representing breathing mode and open circles for the totally symmetric mode, and corresponding solid spots are from the experimental observation. (b) The mode weight of totally symmetric mode depends on the electron phonon coupling time. The mode weight of totally symmetric mode is defined by the divided amplitude of totally symmetric mode on the breathing mode. The open circles and solid circle represent the numerical and experimental results respectively. Conclusions we presented here a simulation model to explain and to quantity the experimentally observed dependence of the electron-photon coupling time constant and the phase of the acoustic oscillations. According to this model based on the notion of enhanced optical field localized around the sharp tips of a nanoprism, we theorized that the geometrical distribution of thermal gradient on the triangular plate were the sources for causing anisotropic thermal expansion. Two planar coherent acoustic modes, namely, the breathing mode and the totally symmetric mode, could be directly observed, as inferred by this anisotropic expansion model.