Transcript Helping Students to Become More Effective Writers
Language Teaching Approaches and Methods Dr. Desmond Thomas, International Academy, University of Essex
Why do people learn English?
• Communication with native speakers • Work • Career prospects • Academic study • Travel • Access to information • Access to literature and culture • Prestige?
What do they need to learn? (1)
• Pronunciation of individual sounds • Word and sentence stress • Intonation • Grammar • Vocabulary • Language functions
What do they need to learn? (2)
• Appropriacy in discourse • Structure of discourse • Language varieties And they need to develop: reading, listening, speaking, writing skills
How languages are learned: theories • Behaviourism. "Verbal behaviour" by B.Skinner (1957) • Cognitivism (Innatism) . "Review of Verbal Behaviour" (1959) and "Syntactic Structures" (1957) by N.Chomsky.
• Interactionism (Socio-constructivism) See works by Piaget and Vygotsky.
Which approaches lead to success?
1. The structural approach?
2. The notional-functional approach?
3. The communicative approach?
4. The lexical approach?
5. The task-based approach?
6. An eclectic approach?
Approaches leading to methods
• Grammar-translation (R&R p.3) • The direct method (p.9) • Situational language teaching (p.31) • The audiolingual method (p.44) • Communicative language teaching (p.64) and post-CLT • Alternative methods: TPR, CLL, Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Natural Approach
Characteristics of CLT
• Based on the idea of 4 types of communicative competence (grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, strategic) and therefore ...
• Focus on function rather than form • Focus on linguistic appropriacy • Focus on actual language use
Implications for the CLT classroom • Communicative speaking activities • Communicative writing activities • Use of ‘authentic materials’ • Emphasis on S-S interaction and on learner autonomy • Attitude to error-making changes • Role of the teacher changes
• Lightbown, P. & Spada,N. 1999,
How Languages are Learned
• Littlewood, W. 1981,
Communicative Language Teaching
, CUP • Richards, J. & Rodgers, T. 1986,
Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching