Helping Students to Become More Effective Writers

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Transcript Helping Students to Become More Effective Writers

Language Teaching Approaches and Methods Dr. Desmond Thomas, International Academy, University of Essex

Why do people learn English?

• Communication with native speakers • Work • Career prospects • Academic study • Travel • Access to information • Access to literature and culture • Prestige?

What do they need to learn? (1)

• Pronunciation of individual sounds • Word and sentence stress • Intonation • Grammar • Vocabulary • Language functions

What do they need to learn? (2)

• Appropriacy in discourse • Structure of discourse • Language varieties And they need to develop: reading, listening, speaking, writing skills

How languages are learned: theories • Behaviourism. "Verbal behaviour" by B.Skinner (1957) • Cognitivism (Innatism) . "Review of Verbal Behaviour" (1959) and "Syntactic Structures" (1957) by N.Chomsky.

• Interactionism (Socio-constructivism) See works by Piaget and Vygotsky.

Which approaches lead to success?

1. The structural approach?

2. The notional-functional approach?

3. The communicative approach?

4. The lexical approach?

5. The task-based approach?

6. An eclectic approach?

Approaches leading to methods

• Grammar-translation (R&R p.3) • The direct method (p.9) • Situational language teaching (p.31) • The audiolingual method (p.44) • Communicative language teaching (p.64) and post-CLT • Alternative methods: TPR, CLL, Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Natural Approach

Characteristics of CLT

• Based on the idea of 4 types of communicative competence (grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse, strategic) and therefore ...

• Focus on function rather than form • Focus on linguistic appropriacy • Focus on actual language use

Implications for the CLT classroom • Communicative speaking activities • Communicative writing activities • Use of ‘authentic materials’ • Emphasis on S-S interaction and on learner autonomy • Attitude to error-making changes • Role of the teacher changes

Further reading

• Lightbown, P. & Spada,N. 1999,

How Languages are Learned

, OUP.

• Littlewood, W. 1981,

Communicative Language Teaching

, CUP • Richards, J. & Rodgers, T. 1986,

Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching

, CUP