Understanding two and three year olds - Ms. Perez

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Transcript Understanding two and three year olds - Ms. Perez

Understanding two and
three year olds
Ms. Perez
Bell ringer
• Which of these drawings was made by
a two year old?
Physical Development of a
two year old
• Top heavy
• Center of gravity is focused downwards
• Can usually run and jump without
Gross motor development
of two year olds
• Can sit on a riding toy and push by
moving their feet
• Enjoying playing with balls
– Can kick without falling
– Sometimes they fall when they throw them
Fine motor development
• Hand preference is a new concept
– Will eat with right but play with left
• Rapidly developing
– Can insert keys into locks
– Turn book pages one at a time
Fine motor development
• Children will scribble at this age
• Build about six-seven block tall towers
Self Help Skills
• Can drink from a cup or a glass
• Use spoon to feed themselves
– However they may spill often
– Can revert back to using hands
• Begin to cooperate in dressing
– Snap pants okay
Cognitive Development
• Language comprehension
– Understanding of language
– Can usually identify six body parts
– Can provide appropriate answers to yes and no
– Can answer “where” and “what is this” questions
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzWtMNZzCjo
Cognitive Development
• Expressive language
– Ability to produce language forms
– Express thoughts to another
– Speech usually involves simple sentences
• “Bobby hurt”
• “I go home”
• At your table create an example of
expressive language a two year old
would say.
How to aid in expressive
• Feeding in
– Strategy where you provide the child’s
– “You are playing with the blocks”
– Kind of like narrating their life
How to aid in expressive
• Expansion
– Adding to their vocabulary by reframing
what they say
– If they say “cars” you say “that is a blue
• At your table create an example using
Expressive language
• Around 27-30 months children may start to
use prepositions “Cookies in jar”
• Average vocabulary is 50-200 words
– Often they use words without fully understanding
– Girls generally develop language skills faster then
What else was this parent doing??
Math Readiness Skills
• Developed as children interact with each
other and objects
• Begin to sort by color and shape
• Understand size concepts
– “big vs. small”
Social development of a
two year old
• parallel play
– Play next to each other
• Like instant gratification
– What does that mean?
• Physical in their responses
– May hit, push, or bite a child who approaches
their child
• Possessive
– Use body language to let people know how they
feel about their possessions
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NbsgXKvT
– What is being demonstrated during this video?
• Affectionate towards adults
– Need to receive in return
• Enjoying helping adults
Emotional development of
two year olds
• Like to control their surroundings
• Trying to do a task that is to difficult
may frustrate them and cause anger
• Anger not usually directed at one
person or object
• Fear is common
• Often are scared of getting hurt
• Some fear has to do with their imagination
– Even imagined fears are REAL to toddlers
• Need to build trust and security
– Routines help develop this
Teaching two-year olds
• When guiding be firm but gentle
• “No” is their favorite word
– May say “no” but mean “yes”
• They are egocentric
– They think everyone thinks, feels, and
thinks like them
• Need lots of transition time
• High noise levels
• Gross motor activity is their favorite
• Like to act out of life experience or
– What area of pre-school is best for this?
• Routines are important
– Story time daily
• “Not-so-terrible-twos”
Bell ringer:
Put these three year old milestones in order:
Hold crayon between thumb and finger
Magical Thinking occurs
Imaginary friend
Aware of differences between themselves
and others
Imaginary friend 3 years
Aware of differences between
themselves and others 3 1/4 years
Magical Thinking occurs 3 1/2 years
Hold crayon between thumb and finger
3 3/4 years
Three Year Olds
• Physical Development
• Much better at body coordination
– Less top heavy
– The are more streamlined
– Walking appears more natural because they can
walk without their legs spread apart
Gross Motor Development
• Better coordination
• They can throw, jump, and hop without
any difficulty
• They now can climb
• Can ride tricycles
Fine Motor Development
• Block towers are nine to ten blocks high
• Can draw simple shapes
– Demo
• Cutting skills become more refined
– Can cut across paper, but not follow lines
Self help skills
Turn on water facet by themselves
Can transfer water to a pitcher
MOST should be potty trained
Better at dressing themselves
– Open buckles, put on shoes that do not tie
– Still not able to do small buttons and hooks
– Have issues telling the front of clothing from the
Cognitive Development
• Don’t fully understand time concepts
• Solve simple problems
– Ex. Put an object under a cup and nothing
under another cup the child will be able to
tell you which object the cup is under
Language comprehension
• Begin to understand pronouns
– You, they
• Can remember three part instructions
– Go to the bathroom, wash your hands, and
dry them on the towel
• Understand words like up, down, apart,
Who, whose, why, how
-Understand ideas like around, in front of,
in back of, next to
• Construct a sentence using the
vocabulary words that three year olds
would understand
Expressive language skills
• Know 900 words
• Make a sentence of 4-5 words
• May even put a sentence together using
a conjunction
– “I went to the store and bought candy.”
Create a sentence that a three year old
would say using a conjugation
• Understand possessive nouns
– My toy, Mommy’s car
• Understand the difference between
past and present tense
– Daddy walked, Mommy went,
• Understand negatives
– Can’t, don’t, nothing
– I can’t go outside
• Start to question things
– Why does the dog bark
• Constantly talk out loud to themselves
– “Susie is taking a walk, I see a dog, I am
tired, lets go home”
– Narrate their lives
Math readiness skills
• Counting skills begin at this age
– A lot of the songs have to do with counting
• Understand the concept of full, more,
less then, empty, largest (by month 42)
– Like to compare objects asking if things
are bigger or smaller
• Can distinguish between one and many
– Pick out one piece of candy
Social Development
Like to help others
Learning positive ways to get attention
Adjust to new people more easily
Not as possessive
Start to learn gender roles
• What behavior is expected of boys and
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pWc
Emotional development
• Strong and visible emotions
– When they are happy, you can tell
– When they are upset you can tell
– However they are beginning to understand
ways to control emotions
• Won’t hit as music as two-year olds, will use
words to tell them that is their toy or to stop it
• Self concept is developed
• Affectionate and seek affection in return
• Still scared of imagined fears, not scared of
things they know
– The dark
• Likely to become angry when things do not
go their way
– However they direct their anger at objects, not
Teaching three-year olds
Happy, social agreeable
Easy to please
Enjoy playing alone and with others
Becoming independent “I can do it”
– Need to show them you value their
Create a venn diagram of
two and three year old’s
• Include at least five things that are
different about each age
• Include at least four things that are
• This is an individual assignment
• When done, discuss similarities and
differences at your table.
• At your table come up with a scenario
describing a way a two year olds would
act in pre-school and the way a three
year old would act
• We will share and guess which is which
as a class.
• Jeremy get’s angry when Ladonna is
playing with a toy, he walks over and
grabs the toy from her. Is Jeremy two or
• Which category of development does
this fall under?
• Cindy is done with her art project, she
walks over to the sink to turn it on and
wash her hands. Is Cindy two or three?
• What area of development does this fall