Putting Things in Order
Put the following events in correct order by numbering them
from 1 to 5.
1.__________Germany’s resumption of submarine warfare
forces the United States into a declaration of war.
2.__________The Senate’s final defeat of the Versailles
treaty and a Republican election victory end Wilson’s last
hopes for American entry into the League of Nations.
3.__________The United States takes the first hesitant
steps toward preparedness in the event of war.
4.__________The effectiveness of American combat troops
in crucial battles helps bring about an Allied victory in World
5.__________Wilson struggles with other Allied leaders in
Paris to hammer out a peace treaty and organize the
1. ___ Germany’s resumption of unrestricted
a. Led to major racial violence in Chicago and East
St. Louis, Illinois
2. ___ Wilson’s Fourteen Points
b. Forced Democrats to vote against a modified
treaty and killed American participation in the
League of Nations
3. ___ The wartime atmosphere of emotional
patriotism and fear
4. ___ Women’s labor in wartime factories
c. Stopped the final German offensive and turned
the tide toward Allied victory
5. ___ The migration of African Americans to
d. Allowed domestic disillusionment and opposition
to the treaty and League to build strength
6. ___ American troops’ entry into combat in
the spring and summer of 1918
e. Finally pushed the United States into World War
7. ___ Wilson’s political blunders in the fall
8. ___ The strong diplomatic demands of
France, Italy, and Japan
9. ___ Senator Lodge’s tactics of delaying
and proposing reservations in the
10. ___ Wilson’s refusal to accept any
reservations supported by Lodge.
Weakened the president’s position during the
g. Caused harsh attacks on German Americans
and other Americans who opposed the war
h. Lifted Allied and American spirits and
demoralized Germany and its allies
Forced Wilson to compromise his Fourteen
Points in order to keep the League as part of the
Helped pass the Nineteenth Amendment but did
not really change society’s emphasis on the
Analyzing Visual Propaganda
This exercise involves analyzing visual
propaganda designed to make emotional appeals
on behalf of a cause. In this case, the propaganda
was designed to enlist the American public’s
support for the war effort against Germany. The
kinds of propaganda used on behalf of a cause
can tell the historian a great deal about what
issues were perceived to be at stake and what
public values were being appealed to.
Answer the following questions about the cartoons
and drawings in this chapter.
1.What caused American entry into World War I, and how did Wilson turn the war into an
2.What did American women gain from their participation in the war effort? What did they fail to
3.What was America’s military and ideological contribution to the Allied victory?
4.How were the goals of the war presented to the American public? Did these lofty and
idealistic goals eventually contribute to the deep American disillusionment at the conclusion of
the war? Why or why not?
5.How was Wilson forced to compromise during the peace negotiations, and why did America,
in the end, refuse to ratify the treaty and join the League of Nations?
6.Do you agree that despite Wilson’s failure to obtain all his goals, he made the Versailles
Peace Treaty much better than it would have been had he not been in Paris? Why or why not?
7.Apart from such immediate factors as the Lodge-Wilson antagonism, what general features of
earlier American history worked against American involvement in European affairs and
participation in the League of Nations?
8.Do you agree that the final responsibility for the failure of America to join the League of
Nations lies with Woodrow Wilson rather than with his opponents like Henry Cabot Lodge? Why
or why not?
9.What really caused the overwhelming Republican victory in the election of 1920?
10.Ever since World War I and its aftermath, many of the fundamental debates about American
foreign policy have been defined by whether the United States should pursue Wilsonianism or
not. Using the account of Wilson’s policies in the text and “Varying Viewpoints,” outline the
essential principles of Wilsonianism and explain why they have been so powerful and yet so
controversial in American history.
The War to End War
Wilson attempts to keep out.
Germany announces on Jan. 31, 1917
unrestricted submarine warfare on all ships in
the war zone.
U.S. breaks of diplomatic relations but
refuses war unless an overt act.
Wilson asks Congress to arm merchant ships.
Midwestern senators attempt a filibuster to
block. Isolationism in Midwest.
Zimmermann note; Secret proposal of a
German-Mexican alliance. Promise of
returning Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
In March 4 U.S. merchant ships are sunk.
Russian Revolution. Now claim a fight for
Wilson asks for declaration of War April 2,
Why did it come to this?
How to gain support?
“Make the World Safe for Democracy”
Base the fight on ideals.
Wilson truly believed in his ideals.
Modern Governments could not afford
to wage warfare in the modernized
Industrial age. Too destructive.
Isolationists or Crusdaers.
8 Million German Americans with at least 1
foreign born parent. Fear and rumors spread
of spys. A few are attacked and 1german
Hatred of Germans and German things swept
the nation. Music (Orchestra), Books
removed, german classes canceled,
Hamburger=Liberty steak, Beer became
suspect breweries like Schlitz and Pabst.
Espionage act and Sedition acts reflect fears
Anti-war socialists and Industrial workers of
the world (IWW). Eugene V. Debs and
William D. Haywood convicted under
Criticism of government could be censored
Schenck v. United States (1919), S.C. affirms
acts. Speech could be revoked when it poses
clear and present danger to the nation.
Warm Up 1-20-15
1. Describe how Wilsonian idealism turned the
war into an ideological crusade for
democracy that inspired public fervor and
2. Describe how America’s mobilization for war
and its reliance primarily on voluntary
methods rather than government force.
Long term Causes
Combination of these four
things led to increased tensions
brewing in the near future
Make a decision…
Which one would you argue was
the strongest cause of war?
Conflict is brewing…
Mobilize for War
U.S. not sufficiently prepared for war.
No one knew true potential for building for
State right’s and business owners’ balked at
federal economic controls.
Freewheeling hit or miss policies might be
considered dangerous to a directed war
Even in crisis Americans preferred laissezfaire policy to an extent.
Workers in Wartime
“Work or Fight” threat of any unemployed
male to be drafted.
Government tries to treat labor fairly.
National War Labor (Taft) work to head of
Samuel Gompers and AF of L supported the
war. Doubled membership by end of war.
WWI “Wobblies” not supportive. Protested
against some of the worst working conditions.
George Creel; responsibility of arousing the
public to the cause.
Bill Boards “Battle of the fences”, Leaflets,
Propaganda books, Hang the Kaiser movies.
“The Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin”
Songs; George Cohan’s “Over There”
U.S. mobilization relied on passion and
voluntary compliance. Too much? If fail to
deliver on everything disillusionment sets in.
• The British accused
the Germans of
using the bodies of
the dead soldiers for
making soap and
• Germans made big
mistakes in their
• The British won the
1. Anti-German Propaganda (p.749):
How do the words and image of this
poster work together to persuade an
American audience to buy liberty loans?
Besides the specific message, what
general portrait of Germany, the war, and
America’s reasons for fighting are
2. Patriotic Persuasion (p. 749):
How does this army recruitment poster
convey the idea that both patriotism and
social solidarity can be served by joining
the military? At what social class of young
man is the poster evidently aimed?
3. Food for Thought (p. 755):
How does this poster visually make
the connection between the patriotic
war effort and gardens? What
specific words or phrases create the
link between women’s food-growing
effort and military service on fields of
combat? What specific appeal is this
image making to women?
1919 Steel Workers Strike, 1/4 million, force
employers to recognize their right to organize
and bargain collectively.
30,000 African Americans brought in to keep
mills running. Brutal confrontation, leads to
African Americans drawn to the North in war
time by industry employment. Beginnings of
the massive trek northwards.
Sparks interracial violence in cities once all
white. East St. Louis and Chicago.
Woman took on jobs left by men headed to
the front line.
Did split the woman’s movement between
pacifists (National Woman’s Party) and those
supporting efforts (National American Woman
New momentum towards suffrage. Wilson
endorsed woman’s suffrage as a vital war
19th Amendment ratified in 1920.
Creating a War Economy
Feed the country and the Allies.
Hoover led the Food Administration. Used
voluntary rather than compliant methods.
Used propaganda campaigns for compliance.
Wheatless Wednesday, meatless Tuesday,
patriotic to the core. Victory gardens.
Restricted foodstuffs for creating alcohol
which accelerated the movement towards
prohibition. 18th amendment in 1919.
Farm production increased and exports
Fuel Administration urged people for heatless
Mondays, lightless nights, gasless Sundays.
Treasury Department sponsored huge
parades and slogans “Halt the Hun” to
promote four Liberty Loan drives together
with Victory Loan campaign, mounted 21
Various kinds of pressures (patriotic) used to
sell bonds. Rope around the neck!!
Occasional exercise of government
power. Railroad takeover after traffic
congestion problems in 1917.
Constructing new ships.
Creating an Army
Allies low on man power and needs U.S.
manpower on the continent.
Conscription needed to raise the numbers.
Fear of retaliation in some parts. 6 weeks
after declaration of war congress passes
conscription. All males 18-45, no purchase
exemption or substitutes. Exemption in key
Army grew to 4 million.
African Americans still serve separate as
Mobilizing troops to Europe
Russia collapse provides a need for
haste. Germans focus on W. Front.
No effective American force would get
there for a year after declaration of war.
1st troops sent to quiet sectors with
British and French. Contributed forces
to other parts including in Russia.
America Helps Hammer the
German drive spring of 1918 with 1/2 million
troops pushed forward within 40 miles of
Allies unite under French marshal Foch.
By July German drive was spent. Foch sets
up a counteroffensive in the Second Battle of
Marne. Beginning of German withdrawl.
September 1918, 9 American divisions joined
4 french divisions at St. Mihiel.
Meuse-Argonne offensive Sept. 26-Nov. 11.
Germans staggering towards surrender
Germans turn to Wilson in Oct. 1918. Based
on 14 points. Kaiser had to be kicked out.
Kaiser forced to flee to Holland.
Nov. 11, 1918. (11th hour) War ends.
U.S. contributions; foodstuffs, munitions,
credits, oil, and manpower.
Not battlefield victories, but prospect of
endless U.S. reserves that demoralized
Wilson’s post war Struggles
High expectations and popularity for the
Political strife at home was kept under the
surface until the war concluded. Wilson
personally appeals for a democratic victory in
Congressional election. Nov. 1918.
Republicans win; a narrow majority in
Congress. Wilson’s power is diminished.
Wilson to Europe, upsets Republicans.
No single Republican Senator in his peace
Henry Cabot Lodge was snubbed. New
chairman of the Senate Committee on
Wilson’s Idealism in conflict with France and
Italy’s Imperialism. Keep President at arms
length from people.
David Lloyd George (Britain), Vittorio Orlando
(Italy), George Clemenceau (France).
Speed urgent, fear of anarchy and
communism spreading throughout war torn
Wilson’s ultimate goal: League of Nations.
1st focus on limiting parceling out Europe to
Not take territories outright but receive it as
trustees of the League of Nations. Became a
disguise of prewar colonialism. France-Syria,
and British take oil rich Iraq.
Wilson big victory was agreement to the
League of Nations.
Hammering out the Treaty.
Wilson returns to a hostile Senate.
Lodge in lead of an Isolationist group intent of
keeping America out of Europe affairs.
“irreconcilables” or Battalion of Death”
Republican senators claim they won’t
approve the League of Nations.
Looking for safeguards in the Monroe
Doctrine and other American interests.
French demands the Rhinelands and Saar
Valley, compromise popular vote, 15 years.
Arguments with Italy over the seaport Fiume.
Wilson appeal to Italy’s masses failed.
Issue with Japanese, & Control of the
Shandong Peninsula with 30 million Chinese.
Japan threatens to walk out and U.S.
Japan keeps economic holdings and pledge
to return peninsula at a later time.
Chinese outraged by Imperialism.
Wilson is taking hits.
Wilson becomes the morale leader of the
14 Points Address on January 8, 1918.
1st Five; Abolish secret Treaties, Freedom of
Seas, Remove economic barriers, Reduce
military forces, adjust colonial claims. Antiimperialism flavor.
Hope of independence to minorities,(Poles)
14th Point foreshadows the League of
Nations. Response of Allied Leaders?
Treaty of Versailles forced upon the Germans
who were not involved in negotiations.
German hope for peace based on Wilson’s
14 points. Only about 4 were fully honored.
Allies torn by conflicting aims of war. Secret
Treaties among them.
Wilson forced to compromise to save his
League of Nations.
Condemned by imperialists and disillusioned
Problems back Home
Isolationists raised protest against the treaty
commitment to the League of Nations.
Critics from all sides. Gemans, Italians, Irish
Senator Lodge tries to Americanize the treaty
in the senate. Uses delay methods.
(Reading all 264 pages in the Senate Foreign
relations committee.) Bogged in the Senate.
Wilson would appeal to the masses in a
speech making tour against physicians
Wilson’s tour took its toll finally in
Pueblo Colorado, collapsed from
Suffered a stroke several days later.
Next few weeks he stayed in a
darkened room. Did not meet his
cabinet for the next 7 months.
Defeat through Deadlock
Lodge came up with 14 reservations to the
treaty. Slap in face to Wilson.
Reserve the rights of the Monroe Doctrine
and the Constitution, protect American
Wilson outraged at Lodge called for all
democratic senators to vote against the treaty
with the Lodge reservations in it.
Treaty rejected. Public outrage. Senators in
favor of a treaty with or without but couldn’t
get enough either way.
2nd time again Wilson refused to accept
it with Lodge Reservations so again it
couldn’t get a 2/3 majority to ratify it.
How defeated the Treaty?
Lodge-Wilson feud, traditionalism,
partisanship can all bear some.
Wilson has to share substantial blame.
Election of 1920
Republicans nominated Warren G. Harding of
Ohio. Easy to mold to the wishes. Took a
teeter tooter stand on the League. Vague
Democrats supported James Cox of Ohio.
Ran on support of the League of Nations.
Harding’s victory symbolizes shift away from
Wilson and his star reaching idealisms to a
Betrayal of Great
League of Nations was undercut when
the U.S. didn’t become a part of it.
Collapse of treaty has to be in part to
Buried its head in the sand.