Biological influences before birth
Biological influences before birth
Knowing the stages of growth and development
throughout the human lifespan - Lesson 9
Learning Outcomes of Unit 4
You will be able to:
1. Identify and define the stages of growth and
development through the human lifespan,
2. Identify, define and apply the potential effects of
life factors and events on the development of the
3. Identify and define the physical and psychological
changes of ageing.
Biological influences before
The environment inside a mother womb can have a
dramatic influence on the development of a child,
Smoking or drinking during pregnancy can affect
the development of the child in the womb.
Foetal alcohol syndrome
Alcohol can have a negative influence on a child’s
development before birth,
Mothers who drink large amounts of alcohol when
pregnant may give birth to children with foetal
Children with this condition tend to be smaller,
have smaller heads than normal and can also
suffer with heart defects and learning difficulties.
Infections during pregnancy
Infections such as rubella and cytomegalovirus can
attack the foetus if a mother becomes infected,
Rubella may lead to a baby being born with
impaired hearing , impaired eyesight or even a
Cytomegalovirus can cause deafness and learning
The extent to which these biological influences will
affect the quality of life of an individual will
depend on the way in which deaf or disabled
people are treated by others.
Effects of diet
Our biological life starts at conception nine months
before we are born,
Babies will be affected by what their mother ate
during pregnancy and during brest feeding,
A high diet in sugar and fats will increase the risk
of high cholesterol and heart disease in children
later in life,
Malnutrition and a lack of healthy food on the other
hand will may result in a lifetime of poor health.
Food Standard Agency (FSA)
Read pages 150 on the effects of diet and in pair
plan the diet of a 5 months pregnant woman for a
You must have a detailed plan for breakfast, lunch,
dinner and including all drinks and snacks
throughout the day
Air and water pollution can influence development
and be a major source of ill health,
In the past a lack of sanitation and sewerage in
cities led to life threatening diseases such as
Until lead was removed from paint and petrol
there were major concerns that led pollution in the
air might affect the brain development of young
What do you think?
In addition to traffic what else might affect
What do you think ?
How might the quality of
housing affect an
individual’s health ?
of crime in the
Poor facilities such as shops
parking in the
and ventilation in
lack of privacy
Access to recreational facilities
Low income may restrict access to travel and other
Social Trends (2009) reported that in 2007, 54% of
households in the lowest income groups did not
have access to a car,
92% of households with a high income had access
to a home computer and had internet,
35% of households with a low income had access to
a computer and only 25% had an internet
Have a think
What barriers to accessing leisure
facilities could occur depending on the
income an individual is in ?
Just to identify a few ...
Access to health and social
Areas with high proportion of low income
households have poorer facilities than wealthy
NHS although it provides a free service for
everyone it is believed that some groups may not
receive the same quality of healthcare,
National Statistics (2006) found that reports that
11% of households without access to a car said
they had difficulty in seeing their local GPs,
People with no access to the internet would also
struggle to access NHS direct.
Write 5 top tips or golden rules about the topic for students
taking the lesson next year.
Develop with snowballing, group answers or posters etc.