Transcript KEPLER: the laws of planetary motion

```KEPLER:
the laws of planetary motion
Physics
Chapter 7—Circular Motion
KEPLER’S
FIRST
LAW
KEPLER’S
SECOND
LAW
KEPLER’S
THIRD
LAW
INTERESTING
APPLETS
Johannes Kepler
 Born on December 27, 1571
in Germany
 Studied the planetary motion of
Mars
 Used
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observational data of Brahe
Tyco Brahe
 Danish astronomer who hired
Kepler as his assistant
 Came up with accurate observations of
Mars with his naked eyes
 Assigned Kepler to develop a theory of
planetary motion using his observations
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Instruments
 Tyco Brahe
 only compass and sextant
 No telescope – naked eye
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Kepler’s FIRST Law
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 “The orbit of each planet is an
ellipse and the Sun is at one focus”
 Kepler proved Copernicus wrong –
planets didn’t move in circles
Ellipse
 Elongated & flattened circle
 Characterized by eccentricity and
length of major axis
 Eccentricity – degree of flatness
 Major axis – longer axis
KEPLER’S
FIRST
LAW
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Focus
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 Focus – one of two special points on
the major axis of an ellipse
 Foci – plural of focus
 A+B is always
the same on
any point on
the ellipse
KEPLER’S
FIRST
LAW
Eccentricity
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 Eccentricity is the degree of flatness
 Eccentricity (e) = 0 is circle
 Earth e = 0.017
 e = c/a
 c = center to focus
 a = half of major axis/
semi-major axis
KEPLER’S
FIRST
LAW
Aphelion & Perihelion
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 Aphelion is the point on the orbit
farthest from the sun
 Perihelion is the point on the orbit
closest to the sun
KEPLER’S
FIRST
LAW
Kepler’s SECOND Law
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 “The line joining the planet to
the sun sweeps out equal areas
in equal intervals of time”
In Another Words…
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 The area from one time to another
time is equal to another area with
the same time interval
 All of the areas (in yellow and peach)
have equal intervals
of time
KEPLER’S
SECOND
LAW
Acceleration of Planets
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 Planet moves faster when closer to the
sun
 Force
acting on the planet increases as
distance decreases and planet accelerates in
its orbit
 Planet moves slower
when farther
from the sun
KEPLER’S
SECOND
LAW
Kepler’s THIRD Law
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 “The square of the period of any
planet is proportional to the cube
of the semi-major of its axis”
 Also referred to as the Harmonic Law
T²  a³
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 T = orbital period in years
 a = semi-major axis in astronomical
unit (AU)
 Can calculate how long it takes
(period) for planets to orbit if semimajor axis is known
KEPLER’S
THIRD
LAW
Astronomical Unit
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 Astronomical unit – AU
 AU is the mean distance between
Earth and the Sun
 1 AU ≈ 1.5 x 108 km ≈ 9.3 x 107 miles
KEPLER’S
THIRD
LAW
Examples of 3rd Law
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 Calculating the orbital period of 1AU
 T² = a³
 T² = (1)³ = 1
 T = 1 year
 Calculating the orbital period of 4AU
 T² = a³
 T² = (4)³ = 64
 T = 8 years
KEPLER’S
THIRD
LAW
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Orbital Data
 The orbital data of various planets
Planet
eccentricity
(e)
T (yr)
a (AU)
T2
a3
Mercury
0.206
0.24
0.39
0.06
0.06
Venus
0.007
0.62
0.72
0.39
0.37
Earth
0.017
1
1
1
1
Mars
0.093
1.88
1.52
3.53
3.51
Jupiter
0.048
11.9
5.2
142
141
Saturn
0.056
29.5
9.54
870
868
Comets
 Although Kepler’s
laws were intended
to describe the
motion of planets
around the sun, the
laws also apply to
comets
 Comets are good
examples because
they have very
elliptical orbits
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Kepler’s Three Laws
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 Orbit of each planet is an ellipse
& Sun is at one focus
 Equal areas in equal intervals of
time
 T² = a³
Contributions
 Kepler’s second law
(equal area) helped
Newton come up with
his Law of Universal
Gravitation
 Motions of satellite
and spacecraft in
orbit near planets
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Interesting Applets
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 http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/sci_lab/ntnu
java/Kepler/Kepler.html
 http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/bi
naries/visual/kepleroldframe.html
 http://www.ioncmaste.ca/homepage/reso
urces/web_resources/CSA_Astro9/files/
multimedia/unit4/keplers_laws/keplers_la
ws.html
Works Cited
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 Drennon, Bill. “Kepler’s laws.” Central Valley Christian High
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School. 14 March 1997. 23 May 2008.
http://home.cvc.org/science/kepler.htm
Fendt, Walter. “Kepler’s First Law.” Java Applets on Physics. 18
January 2003. 23 May 2008.
http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/keplerlaw1.htm
Fendt, Walter. “Kepler’s Second Law.” Java Applets on Physics.
18 January 2003. 25 May 2008.
http://www.walter-fendt.de/ph14e/keplerlaw2.htm
"Johannes Kepler." World of Earth Science. Online. Thomson
Gale, 2006. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center.
Farmington Hills, Mich.: Gale, 2008.
http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC
“Johannes Kepler: The Laws of Planetary Motion.” University of
Tennessee. 25 May 2008.
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html
Works Cited II
 “Kepler’s Laws.” Orbitessera. 26 May 2008
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http://www.mindspring.com/~n2wwd/html/kepler_s_laws.html
"Kepler's laws of planetary motion." Encyclopædia Britannica.
2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 25 May 2008.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045134.
Nave, R. “Kepler’s Laws.” HyperPhysics. 25 May 2008.
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kepler.html
Soper, Davison. “Kepler’s First Law.” University of Oregon. 2002.
23 May 2008.
http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~soper/Orbits/kepler1.html
Weisstein, Eric. “Kepler’s Third Law.” Eric Weisstein’s World of
Physics. 2007. 26 May 2008.
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/physics/KeplersThirdLaw.html
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