COMPETENTIES & VERPLEEGKUNDE eindrapport Vlaams …

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Transcript COMPETENTIES & VERPLEEGKUNDE eindrapport Vlaams …

“KWALITEITSCULTUUR”
in Europa
Vlaams Bolognaproject 2008-2009
Bolognaseminarie
Brussel | 3 juni 2009
Lucien Bollaert
inhoud
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• ontstaan van IKZ
• IKZ in EHEA (Bologna)
• Quality culture project (EUA)
• Quality culture in EQAF
• Lee Harvey & Bjǿrn Stensaker
• besluiten
ontstaan
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• KZ/Q Control is ontstaan in industrie in de jaren ’50
• Dr. W. Edwards Deming & Dr. Joseph M.Juran met
inzichten uit jaren ‘40 naar Japan
• “quality is fitness for use”, zelfcontrole en “teaching
everyone the principles of problem solving” (J.M.Juran)
• “Consumentenresearch is een continu proces waarbij
het product voortdurend wordt verbeterd en
veranderingen ondergaat om aan de wensen van de
consument tegemoet te komen.”
Deming, Elementary Principles of the Statistical Control of Quality, Nippon
Kagaku Gijutsu Remmei JUSE, 1951
• Doorbraak in de jaren ‘60
ontstaan
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• IKZ/TQC in de jaren ’70
• “Kwaliteit is de mate waarin een product en/of dienst
voldoet aan de verwachtingen of doelstellingen die
alle betrokkenen daaromtrent koesteren of
formuleren, en de mate waarin het product en/of
dienst een ‘ongestoord’ genot biedt gedurende de
normale levensduur ervan.” (J.M.Juran)
• Total = everyone & everything is involved
• Management = managed process which involves
people, systems and supporting tools and techniques
ontstaan
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• EFQM: 1991
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ontstaan
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• TQM as change management to a customer-driven
organisation: eind jaren ‘80
• Maar, botsend op organisatiecultuur en/of dito klimaat
• Organisatiecultuur is “het systeem van door de leden
gedeelde zingeving” S.P.Robbins, Gedrag in organisaties, 1992
• “Organizational culture is defined as a set of shared
values and norms held by employees that guide their
interactions with peers, management, and clients”
Svyantek & Bott in Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment:
industrial and organizational assessment, 2004
• “Cultuurloosheid bestaat niet” Herman Van Den Broeck,
Lerend management, verborgen krachten van managers en organisaties,1998
• John A. Woods, The six Values of a Quality Culture,
1996
IKZ in EHEA
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kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
IKZ in hoger onderwijs: (eind) jaren ‘80
van inspectie naar externe KZ (audit panels)
van externe naar interne KZ (bevragingen)
opkomst “nationale kwaliteitsagentschappen” voor
externe kwaliteitszorg in Europa: midden jaren ‘90
European Pilot Project for Evaluating Quality in Higher
Education: 1994-95: sharing & developing experiences
Recommendation of the Council 98/561/EC of 24.09.98
Bologna declaration: 1999
European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher
Education (ENQA): 2000
European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher
Education (ENQA): 2004
IKZ in EHEA
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• Bolognaproces (1999): “promotion of European cooperation in quality assurance with a view to
developing comparable criteria and methodologies”
• Berlijn communiqué (2003): “The quality of higher
education has proven to be at the heart of the setting up
of a EHEA. …
• “They also stress that consistent with the principle of
institutional autonomy, the primary responsibility for
quality assurance in higher education lies with each
institution itself and this provides the basis for real
accountability of the academic system within the
national quality framework. …”
IKZ in EHEA
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• “Therefore, they agree that by 2005 national quality
assurance systems should include:
· A definition of the responsibilities of the bodies and
institutions involved.
· Evaluation of programmes or institutions, including
internal assessment, external review, participation of
students and the publication of results.
· A system of accreditation, certification or comparable
procedures.
· International participation, co-operation and
networking. …”
IKZ in EHEA
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• At the European level, Ministers call upon ENQA
through its members, in co-operation with the EUA,
EURASHE and ESIB, to develop an agreed set of
standards, procedures and guidelines on quality
assurance, to explore ways of ensuring an adequate
peer review system for quality assurance and/or
accreditation agencies or bodies,
• and to report back through the Follow-up Group to
Ministers in 2005. Due account will be taken of the
expertise of other quality assurance associations and
networks.”
• Bergen 2005: ESG aanvaard
• London 2007: Register & EQAF
Q Culture Project
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• Quality Culture Project van EUA: 2002-2006
• Vanuit tegenstand tegen IKZ vanuit traditionele HOI
• Vanuit de vaststelling dat IKZ niet optimaal werkt indien
louter klemtoon op procedures, administratie en externe
kwaliteitszorg
• Vanuit de “gewenning”, en dus neergang, van IKZ aan
de externe cycli, procedures en kengetallen
• 3 ronden van 6 thematische netwerken: 2002-2003,
2004-2005, 2005-2006:
• 134 HOI, 36 landen: o.a. AKUL, AUG
Q Culture Project
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
“It is often the case that when speaking of quality, it is
easy to revert back to such managerial concepts as
quality control, quality mechanisms, quality
management, etc. These concepts, however, are not
neutral. They convey a technocratic and top-down
approach that will backfire in academic settings. The
self-perception of academics as successful
professionals who are committed to excellence means
that they dislike being managed.”
Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p. 6
Q Culture Project
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
“Therefore, the term ‘culture’ was chosen to convey a
connotation of quality as a shared value and a collective
responsibility for all members of an institution, including
students and administrative staff.”
Quality culture signals the need to ensure a grass-roots
acceptance, to develop a compact within the academic
community through effective community building, as
well as change in values, attitude and behaviour within
an institution.”
Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p. 6
Q Culture Project
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• Geen definitie van “kwaliteit”: 2 ronden discussie
• Quality as fitness for purpose, compliance (zero errors),
as customer satisfaction, as excellence, as value for
money, as transformation (process of changing the
customer), as enhancement (process of changing the
institution)
• Geen definitie van “kwaliteitscultuur”
• “Quality culture refers to an organisational culture that
intends to enhance quality permanently and is
characterised by two distinct elements: …”
Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p. 10
Q Culture Project
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• A cultural/psychological element of shared values,
beliefs, expectations and commitments towards quality
• A structural/managerial element with defined processes
that enhance quality and aim at coordinating individual
efforts
• Thus, the cultural/psychological element refers back to
individual staff members while the structural/managerial
refers back to the institution
• Both elements must be linked through good
communication, discussion and participatory processes
at institutional level
Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p. 10-11
Q Culture Project
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• Institutional autonomy and external accountability
procedures are two factors that determine the maturity
of quality culture in an institution
• Institutions characterised by a mature and successful
quality culture are usually those that enjoy a high
degree of autonomy
• Where external accountability procedures stress
institutional responsibility and de-emphasise
compliance with standards, institutional quality cultures
are more mature and effective
Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p. 10-11
Q Culture Project
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Quality Culture
Quality management
Technocratic element
Communication
Participation
Trust
Tools and mechanisms to measure
evaluate, assure, and enhance quality
top-down
Quality commitment
Cultural element
individual level:
personal commitment to strive
for quality
collective level:
individual attitudes add up to
culture
bottom-up
facilitate
Quality Culture in European University: a bottom-up approach, p. 20
Q Culture EQAF
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• 1st European Quality Assurance Forum (EQAF),
München, 23 – 25 November 2006:
Embedding Quality Culture in Higher Education
Lucien Bollaert, Lee Harvey, et al, Embedding Quality Culture in Higher
Education, EUA Case Studies 2007, p. 81-84
• 8 open discussion, no definition, characteristics:
• Academic ownership of quality
• Recognition of need for a “non-bureaucratic” system of
quality monitoring to ensure accountability (and
compliance where required) and to facilitate
improvement
• Primarily about the behaviour of stakeholders rather
than the operation of a quality system
Q Culture EQAF
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• Quality system needs to have a clear purpose, which
articulates with the quality culture
• A quality culture places students at the centre
• A quality culture is about partnership and co-operation,
sharing of experiences and team working
• A quality culture is about supporting the individual as an
autonomous scholar but not at the expense of the
learning community; there is a symbiotic relationship
between individual and community
• Leadership in a quality culture is inspirational rather
than dictatorial. Leadership is at all levels in the
institution and does not refer to just senior managers
Q Culture EQAF
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
• A quality culture welcomes external critical evaluation
from a variety of sources including formal external
evaluations, external peers acting as critical friends,
and internal peer review and support
• At heart a quality culture is about facilitating and
encouraging reflexivity and praxis; self-reflection,
developing improvement initiatives and implementing
them.
• Is a QA system a prerequisite for the development of a
quality culture or the other way around?
• They need to grow together in harmony!
Q Culture EQAF
kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
BENEFITS OF A QUALITY CULTURE:
• Increases co-operation
• Gives students a voice that is heard
• Provides a strong front for an institution in a competitive
higher education world
• Provides a context for change
• Champions innovation
• Allows staff to take risks, admit failure and learn from
mistakes, IF external quality evaluations encourage
improvement rather than compliance.
Lee Harvey, Overview of discussions, in Embedding … , p. 81-84
Harvey & Stensaker kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Lee Harvey & Bjǿrn Stensaker,
Quality Culture: understandings, boundaries and linkages
European Journal of Education, vol. 43, No. 4, 2008, pp. 427-442
• Short historical account of “culture”: anthropology
• Culture = system of shared beliefs, values, customs,
behaviours, and artefacts, developed along three lines
(civilised, artistic, way of life with subcultures)
• Cultural relativism = no absolute standards
• No culture can be judged superior to another
• Q culture as a part of broader organisational culture
(having or being)
Harvey & Stensaker kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Ideal-type Quality cultures in “Cultural Theory” framework
degree of group-control
STRONG
WEAK
Intensity of external rules
STRONG
responsive
reactive
WEAK
regenerative reproductive
• Responsive QA: led by external demands (learning to improve from
accountability issues and compliance requirements and culturally similar good
practices)
• Reactive QA: reacts to external demands (taking advantage when action is
linked to reward, so driven by compliance but reluctant to accountability,
because of doubts about any improvement potential resulting from evaluation,
mourning the loss of trust and autonomy; QC not owned but imposed)
• Regenerative QA: focused on internal developments, aware of external
expectations (coordinated, dynamic plan for improvement and
reconceptualisation in a learning organisation approach and wide-spread QC)
• Reproductive QA: focused on status quo (do best along established norms,
but no (re)thinking; QC is based on individual aspirations and not transparent)
besluiten
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kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Veel verwarring, geen definitie, weinig onderzoek
Wel uiterst belangrijke onderbouw
Organisatiecultuur en/of kwaliteitscultuur
Altijd cultuur, welke?
Één cultuur of verschillende (sub)culturen?
Verschil tussen perceptie/werkelijkheid en wens/beleid
Verschil tussen procedures, systematische en
operationele KZ en KC en “verhaal”
• gericht naar collectief, mens of specialisatie
gericht naar systeem, innovatie of traditie
gericht naar binnen of/en naar buiten
• Band tussen kwaliteitscultuur, IKZ en resultaten?