*Aggression, Appeasement and War *The Global Conflict, Axis

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Transcript *Aggression, Appeasement and War *The Global Conflict, Axis

*AGGRESSION, APPEASEMENT AND WAR
*THE GLOBAL CONFLICT, AXIS ADVANCES
*THE GLOBAL CONFLICT, ALLIED SUCCESSES
*TOWARD VICTORY
*FROM WORLD WAR TO COLD WAR
World War II and its Aftermath
Quick Review

Rise of Fascism
 Italy
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-
Mussolini
 Economic
Problems
 Weakness after WW1
 Promised to restore order and glory
 Germany-
Hitler
 Economic
Problems
 Weakness after WW1
 Promised to restore order and glory

US/World Reaction
 Dealing
with own problems – Great Depression
 Didn’t want to get involved in another European war
Dictators Change World Peace
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1930’s – Dictators aggressive action met only protests and please
for peace. At the time, leaders believed this policy would work
Mussolini & Hitler views pleas for peace as weakness
JAPAN- Military leaders and ultranationalists thought Japan should
be a super power like the western powers
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Invaded Manchuria in 1931 (with protests from the west, pulled out of League of Nations)
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BY 1937, Japan had overran most of China (more protests, but no action against)
ITALY – Mussolini wanted to display his military power and used
Ethiopia (in revenge for loss in 1896)
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Ethiopians resisted, as best they could, with outdated weapons
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Ethiopian leader, Haile Selassie, appealed for help from League of Nations
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LofN voted for sanctions (without power to enforce)
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Italy conquered Ethiopia in a very short time
Dictators Change World Peace
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GERMANY – Hitler will test the western powers by defying the
Treaty of Versailles – building up his military
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German troops sent into Rhinelands to retake lands taken at the end of WWI
APPEASEMENT – Hitler’s moves were denounced but took no action. Western
powers gave into his demands rather than risk confrontation
APPEASEMENT – now seen as an error, but at time there were reasons
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No desire to confront Hitler (some even saw actions as justifiable – treaty too harsh)
Many saw Hitler as a defense against a worse evil – Soviet Communism
Great Depression weakened most nations – in no position to put up a fight
PACIFISM – opposition to all war – disgust with level of devastation from WWI
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US passed “Neutality Acts” that forbade the US from selling arms to warring nations,
outlawed loans to warring nations, intended to prevent involvement in another European
war
ROME – BERLIN – TOKYO AXIS – agreed to fight against communism
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Agreed to stay out of each others way as they took bolder and bolder steps
The Spanish Civil War
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From Monarchy to a Republic
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Nationalists vs. Loyalists
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Popular unrest in the early 30’s forced the King of Spain to leave. A republic was
established with more liberal ideas and a constitution
Controversial reforms: taking Church lands, land to peasants, women’s right to vote,
ending the privileges of the elite ruling class
Most Spaniards wanted a peaceful democracy, but clashes between the extremes
(right and left) created chaos
Fascist leader Franco, touched off a bloody civil war “Nationalists”
Loyalists, supporters of the new republic, fought to keep their democracy
Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin and others sent troops to “aid” in fighting
US, GB and France remained neutral
Dress Rehearsal
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Violent clashes led to the deaths of more than 1 million Spanish
Germany backed Franco, sent military to aid (and test)
Franco established a Fascist regime and rolled back the earlier reforms
German Aggression Continues
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3rd Reich
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Austria ANNEXED
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Hitler wanted to bring all German speaking areas under German control
“Living Space” to the east
“Aryan Race” superiority meant they had the right to conquer lesser races
Hitler bullied Austria into accepting Nazi’s in their government
When they resisted, German troops sent to “preserve order”
Hitler declared himself leader of Austria, breaking the Treaty of Versailles
Brief fear of a war kept the West from interfering in Hitler’s plans
The Czech Crisis
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Hitler demanded “Sudetenland” be given autonomy (choice)
GB and France unwilling to stand up to Hitler to protect this democracy
Hitler increased demands and the West caved in and gave Czech to Hitler
Hitler assured GB and FR he had not further plans to expand (APPEASEMENT)
APPEASEMENT – N. Chamberlain
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“Peace in Our Time”
 After
meeting with Hitler, PM Neville Chamberlain of GB declared
the “MUNICH PACT” had ‘saved Czechoslovakia from destruction
and Europe from armageddon’
 Czechoslovakia had revealed Hitler’s plans and the weakness of
the West
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Winston Churchill, a British politician, warned against appeasement
‘They had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor, they
will have war.’
German Russian Non-Aggression Pact
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The first pact was an economic agreement, which Ribbentrop and Molotov
signed on August 19, 1939. The economic agreement committed the
Soviet Union to provide food products as well as raw materials to
Germany in exchange for furnished products such as machinery from
Germany. During the first years of the war, this economic agreement
helped Germany bypass the British blockade.
On August 23, 1939, four days after the economic agreement was signed
and a little over a week before the beginning of World War II, Ribbentrop
and Molotov signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. (The pact is
also referred to as the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact and the
Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact.) Publicly, this agreement stated that the two
countries - Germany and the Soviet Union - would not attack each other. If
there were ever a problem between the two countries, it was to be
handled amicably. The pact was supposed to last for ten years; it lasted
for less than two.
Example of writing
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North Mason High School is in Belfair Washington.
The high school is rated 2A and its mascot is “The
Bulldogs (nmsd.wednet.edu).
Belfair is located at the tip of Hood Canal (AAA
map)and has a population of about 2000, but the
region is far more populated than that. People live in
surrounding communities and those students also attend
North Mason High School.
Europe Plunges Toward War
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Appeasement DID NOT bring peace!!
Nazi-Soviet Pact – (Aug 1939)
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Non aggression pact signed between German and Soviet Union
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Agreed to not fight each other and to divide up Poland & other parts of E. Europe
Pact based on mutual fear/need
Soviets looked to Allies for aid, bought time to build defenses
Why War Came
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Axis Aggression
Treaty of Versailles
Failure of west to confront looming problems with Axis powers
Allies concerned with own internal issues (Great Depression)
Early Axis Gains
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Blitzkrieg – lighting war – was used to quickly overwhelm opponents. First
bombers would hit airfields, factories, towns and cities. Then dive bombers would hit
the troops and civilians. Finally, fast moving tanks and troop transports would move
in and take over. Used against Poland and other to follow.
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The “Phony War” – The French enforced the “Maginot Line”. The British sent
troops to back them up. Meanwhile, Hitler’s troops bypassed the Maginot Line and
“blitzkrieged” through Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and Belguim. Germany
was quickly right on France’s border
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Miracle at Dunkirk – retreating British troops were trapped between advancing
Germany troops and the sea at Dunkirk. In an amazing gamble, the British sent
every boat they could find across the British Channel to rescue them. More than
300,000 troops were rescues to fight another day. The British would be able to
hold on against the Germans because of this miracle
Early Axis Gains
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France Falls
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Once Germany blitzed through, they quickly marched on Paris
Italy declared war in France and attacked from the south
In revenge for WWI, Germany forced France to surrender in same rail car that Germany had
been forced to surrender in
Germany occupied north France and set up a puppet government in the south
Some French will escape and set up a government in exile led by DeGaulle
Worked to liberate France with the “french resistance” movement
Africa & the Balkans
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(contintued)
Axis armies will push into N. Africa and the Balkans (S 1040)
Rommel will lead Germany’s tank forces in controlling N Africa (O 1940)
By 1941, Axis controlled Eastern Europe (greece, hungary, yugoslavia, bulgaria)
The Technology of Modern Warfare
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Air Power – Luftwaffe – perfected methods of bombing civilian and military targets
Radar & Sonar
Tanks & Troops carriers
Synthetic products improved war machinery
Medical advances improved treatment of injured
Far greater destructive power
Battle of Britain & the “Blitz”
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Battle of Britain – England remained the only power left
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Winston Churchill (who replaced appeaser Neville Chamberlain) vowed to resist
“We shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on
the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight on the
fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never
surrender.
Winston Churchill (1940)
For many years, Churchill will be the lone voice against the Nazi’s
Hitler’s generals make a plan for the invasion of England called “Operation
Sea Lion.” In preparation, he launched MASSIVE airstrikes
Battle of Britain & the “Blitz”
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The London Blitz
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Aug 1940- German bombers begin daily bombing of England’s s. coast
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For 1 month, the RAF fought back valiantly
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Germany changed tactics, switched from military targets to civilian ones
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Sept 1940 – London was bombed, day and night, for 57 straight days
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Much of London destroyed, more than 15,000 people killed
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London did not crumble
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Parliament continued to meet
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Citizens tried to carry on their daily lives, running to bomb shelters when needed
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Children sent out of London to the countryside
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The King and Queen showed their solidarity by going to the bomb shelters instead of fleeing the city
Failure of the Blitz
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Bombing will continue on and off thru June 1941
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Instead of ‘breaking’ the British, it only strengthened their will to fight
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Hitler will stop the attacks on England and turn his sights on the Soviet Union next
Operation Barbarosa
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Hitler decided to break the “non-aggression pact” he had made with
Stalin (wanted raw materials Russia possessed) and he wanted to crush
communism & Stalin
The German Advance
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Hitler unleashes a new type of blitzkrieg – 3 million german soldiers pour into Russia
Caught totally unprepared, Russia losed 2-3 million in fighting back
As they retreated, they destroyed EVERYTHING in their path, to keep from enemies
By winter, Germany had advanced deep into Russia, but stalled there - WINTER
Siege of Leningrad
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2 ½ year siege on Leningrad cost Germany and Russia
People of Russia badly suffered (food shortages, no heat)
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Boiled wallpaper for the flour paste, boiled leather briefcases to eat the softened leather
More than 1 million Russians will die in Leningrad alone
Stalin begged the US & Great Britain to attack Hitler hoping it would lessen their
attack
No help now, but later in the war, the two sides would work together
American Involvement Grows
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Early on, the US had declared “neutrality”
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The Arsenal of Democracy
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Morally supported Allies, but didn’t want to get involved
President FD Roosevelt will find ways around neutrality to help Allies
Lend-Lease Act – gave surplus military supplies to Allies in exchange for
lease on some strategic bases
US became the “arsenal of democracy”
Atlantic Charter
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1941 – Churchill and Roosevelt will secretly met and agreed on the
“Atlantic Charter,” a plan on how they could defeat Hitler together
World War II Jeopardy
In assigned groups, you will be creating 15 jeopardy
questions to be used to review or on the test
There are 5 sections
1 easy question
1 medium question
1 hard question
Your group will receive class time to complete these and
turn them in by Tuesday.
Jeopardy Groups
GROUP ONE:
Chandler, Ryan, Olivia, Araziea, Natalie, Milynn
GROUP TWO:
Emma, Tyler, Amy, Kaylla, Justin, Nicoli
GROUP THREE:
Zak, Tristen, Stephanie, Samantha, Tayler, Savannah
GROUP FOUR:
Jason, Arianna, Kelli, Charles, Lisa
GROUP FIVE:
Gabe, Avery, Stevie, Sierra, Brendan
Japan Attacks – 12.7.1941
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Japan had taken over much of China in the 1930’s
Growing Tensions
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Attack on Pearl Harbor
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In a surprise attack, the Japanese destroyed 19 ships, killed more than 2,400
“A date which will live in Infamy” President Roosevelt asked Congress to declare
war on Japan, Germany declares war on the US, WORLD WAR II on
Japanese Victories
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To stop Japanese aggression, the US cut off oil & scrap metal
Angered, the Japanese military devised a plan to get even and to knock the US out
of the Pacific, enabling them to do whatever they wanted
Without opposition, Japan able to capture much of SE Asia
Attacking US will prove to be a BIG mistake, but will keep them away for a while
Germany controls Europe, Japan controls Asia
Occupied Lands
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WWII on larger scale, involved military and civilian targets
Nazi Europe (Germany will amass victory after victory)
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Racial obsession about Aryan race led Germany to push aside people for “living space”
Nazi’s took resources for themselves, 1000’s sent to work camps
Resistance movements arose, Nazi’s brutally repressed any opposition “savage revenge”
Nazi Genocide (more than 6 million Jews died in death camps)
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Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, and the mentally ill needed to be eliminated, according to Nazi’s
“FINAL SOLUTION” devised to murder all the Jews in Europe
Death Camps (Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka) used to gas, cremate victims
Jews shipped from all over Europe to the camps
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Sorted for death
If they survived, they were used to work/medical experiments
Clothing, belongings sorted and used
Some helped Jews hide/escape
Others collaborated with the Nazi’s
The Allied War Effort
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Once the US entered the war, the leaders of the main
countries (US, USSR, GB) met to discuss strategies (1942)
 BIG
THREE - Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill
 Agreed to finish war in Europe first, then deal with Japan
 Big Three DID NOT trust each other
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US/GB believed Stalin wanted to dominate/take over Europe
Stalin believed US/GB wanted to destroy communism
 Stalin
urged Allies to attack Hitler to relieve pressure on Russia by
opening a 2nd front of the war
 Not until 1944 would this occur
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US/GB said they did not have resources to do yet
Stalin believed they wanted Russia to take the brunt of Nazi power to
weaken the Soviet Union (communism)
Total War
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TOTAL WAR: Channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war
effort (targeting military and civilian targets)
US & GB committed their economies to the war effort
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Able to transition existing businesses into making war craft
Ended unemployment – the Great Depression over
Governments rations needed goods – food, metal, rubber, silk, etc
Governments used propaganda and limited rights in some countries
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US – Japanese internment
GB – German’s also detained as refugees
Women Help Win the War
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Millions of women, worldwide, replaced the men (who went off to
war) in factories in essential jobs
Women built ships, planes, guns, ammo
British and American women served in the Armed Forces in auxiliary
roles (driving trucks, ambulances, delivering airplanes, decoding
messages.
Women fought in the “Resistance” in Nazi-occupied countries
Turning Points
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1942-43 Key battles turn the tide of the war in favor of the Allies
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North Africa – EL ALAMEIN – British Tank Commander Montgomery turned by the
“Desert Fox” Rommel. Then US joined in. Generals Eisenhower and Patton helped
surround and force surrender of German tank forces
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INVASION OF ITALY – “Soft Underbelly of Europe” – Victory in North Africa gave
Allies a place to jump off into Italy
 Sicily & Southern Italy – Italian troops defeated in 1 month
 Italians overthrew Mussolini (strung up Mussolini & wife to make example of them)
 Hitler sent troops to try to keep Italy (and keep Allies back)
 Next 18 months, the Allies SLOWLY push north, brutal battles, high casualties
 Decisive because is forced Hitler to fight on a 2nd front, weakened his military force
Red Army Resists
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Germans stalled in Russia in 1941. 1942 Hitler will launch a new
offensive, going for the oil fields, but got hung up in Stalingrad
Stalingrad – one of the costliest of the war (Stalin’s namesake)
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Germans surrounded city
Russians surrounded the attackers
A bitter street by street battle over the winter ensued
Trapped, without food or ammo, the German commander finally surrendered
Battle cost the Germans 300,000 killed, wounded or captured
Counterattack –
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After the victory at Stalingrad, the Soviet Army began pushing the
Germans out of Russia
The Nazi’s suffered irreplaceable losses in troops and equipment
Germans in full retreat and the Russians on the advance into Eastern
Europe
War in the Pacific
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After Pearl Harbor, Japan won a string of victories
By 1942, Japan controlled most of SE Asia
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Philippines – Bataan Death March example of brutal treatment
May/June 42 – US had recovered and began to fight back
After Battle of Midway, US took the offensive and began to push the
Japanese back by using “ISLAND HOPPING”
Fighting was intense. Each island was expensive in lives of both
Japanese and Americans
By 1944 – US within range to bomb Japanese cities and industries
Nazis Defeated
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The Allied Advance
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June 6, 1944 – D-Day – Allied Forces attack mainland Europe thru Normandy France
After freeing France – Allies begin pushing German forces back
Battle of the Bulge – Hitler’s last try to stop the Allies
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Loss of support back home – several assassination attempts on Hitler
Germany now under 24 hour bombings
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1 month – horrible losses by both sides (Germans 100,000 Allies 80,000)
For 2 years, Allies had bombed German cities, factories, railroads, oil depots, military bases
Hamburg almost erased in 10 days of bombing
Dresden -135, 000 killed in bombings
March ‘45 – Allies enter Germany from West, Russians enter from the East
The End in Europe
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The End in Europe
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Italy –
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Germany –
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Mussolini captured, killed.
Italy switches sides and joins Allies
Russians advance through Poland and race to Berlin
Hitler will commit suicide in his bunker before the Russians take Berlin
1000 year Reich ends when Germany surrenders on May 7, 1945
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The leaders of Germany after Hitler’s suicide surrender shortly after
The BIG THREE now meet to manage the peach
“Tug-of-war” between Stalin and FDR/Churchill
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Stalin – needs BUFFER ZONE between Russia and Europe
- wants to export Communism to other countries
FDR/Churchill – want Europe rebuilt as a center of democracry
• - must protect against communist intrusion
Defeat of Japan
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Allies (US) could now concentrate on Japan
By mid-45’ Japan’s navy and air force had been destroyed
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Japan still had 2 million soldiers ready to fight
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Victory was at hand, but fighting would be deadly
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Kamikazi fighters
Invasion v. the Bomb
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Allies needed Japan to surrender, they had to be convinced
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Battles leading up to this point had been fanatical
Kamikazi attacks showed lengths to which the Japanese would go
Options (Emperor refused to surrender, despite obvious defeat)
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Invade
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Blockade
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Take long time, may or may not be successful
Peace settlement
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Estimated losses for the Allies 1 million, Japanese maybe 10x
Allow Japan less than total surrender
“The Bomb” (US had secretly developed new bomb)
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New weapon, would have devastating effects on Japan
Level of destruction far beyond even the makers belief
Death toll would be in the 100,000’s, immediately (many more die of radiation poisoning)
Hiroshima
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August 6, 1945 – American dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima
4 square miles were flattened, killing more than 70,000 instantly.
Nearly as many died from radiation poisoning
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JAPANESE LEADERS DID NOT RESPOND TO CALLS TO SURRENDER
August 8, 1945 – Russian attacks Japan by invading Manchuria (as
part of the agreement of the Big 3)
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Agreement with allies at end of European war
To claim lands in Asia, as part of expanding communism
JAPANEST LEADERS STILL DID NOT SURRENDER
August 9, 1945 – 2ND atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki. 6070,000 killed, nearly as many die from radiation poisoning
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FINALLY, THE EMPEROR OVERRULED GOVERNMENT AND SURRENDERED
Ongoing Controversy
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Dropping the bomb brought a swift end to the war, but at what cost?
The Atomic Age had begun
The debate over whether the US should have used this powerful
weapon still goes on today
Truman’s reasoning
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Japan would not surrender without an invasion, costing millions of lives
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Did not want to face American mothers who lost their sons in an invasion he could have
prevented!!
Truman hoped the power of the bomb would impress/scare the Soviet Union
From World War to Cold War
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Casualties of the war
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Europe
Russia
Brutality of the war was unpresidented
38 million dead (both sides combined)
22 million dead
Aftermath of the War
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Horrors of the Holocaust –
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War Crimes Trials
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Allies aware of death camps but the full extent was overwhelming
More than 10 million (6 million Jews) killed in the camps
Axis leaders needed to be held accountable
“Crimes Against Humanity” charges at Nuremburg trials
177 Germans tried, 142 found guilty (a few were executed, most imprisoned)
Japanese leaders will also be tried and convicted of war crimes
Trials exposed the horrors of the Fascist regimes
Allied Occupation
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Ordinary people went along with the Nazi horrors
US believed strengthening democracy would ensure tolerance and peace
Helped set up new governments (Example: schools replaced Nazi school books with books that taught
democratic principles and the rights of citizens
From World War to Cold War
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The United Nations – International organization to ensure peace
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UN charter – each nation got 1 vote in General Assembly
5 permanent members of the Security Council (US, GB, Fr, USSR, China)
Work of UN goes far beyond peacekeeping today (UNICEF, WHO)
The Alliance Breaks Apart
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Growing Differences
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Origins of the Cold War
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Tensions between USSR and US/GB split the alliance shortly after the war
Stalin – 2 goals: Spread Communism, Buffer Zone
Red Army occupied lands they took back from Germany, said US hadn’t consulted them
on how to deal with Japan after the war
Churchill and FDR made Stalin promise “free elections”, he did but then set up puppet
governments and single-party communism
A Divided Europe
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“Iron Curtain” dropped on Europe between East (communist) and West (democracies)
World History B CBA
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The CBA is a required element of World History A
The issue: Should the U.S. use the atomic bomb against
Japan in an attempt to end World War II? Or should the
U.S. pursue another course of action to end the war?
You will research and write a persuasive essay on the
topic above
Identify options open to the US
 Explore the consequences (economic, social and historical) of
each option
 Defend whether you believe the US use of the Atomic Bomb
is/was justified

From World War to Cold War
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Aftermath of War: 75 million worldwide died (USSR – 22 million)
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Horrors of the Holocaust
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Allies became aware of Death Camps, but only at the end of the war did they learn
of the extent of the inhumanity and misery of the Holocaust
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War Crimes Trials – Nuremburg - “Crimes against Humanity”
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11 million killed
6 million Jews (2/3 of all the Jewish people in Europe)
1.1 million children killed
177 Nazi’s tried – 142 convicted
Most went to jail, a few were executed
Similar trials held in Italy and Japan
Trials to hold leaders accountable for the actions they ordered, even in wartime
Allied Occupation
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Japan – troops occupied while new governments, based on democracy, set up
Germany – split into 4 quarters (US, GB, Fr, USSR)
New Conflicts Develop
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Soon, Stalin took aggressive action in buffer zone countries
Truman Doctrine – US would support free people who resisted
attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures
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It was clear the US would resist any attempt of Soviet expansion
“Containment” – can’t/won’t try to get rid of communism, just won’t allow it to
spread to other countries
Truman sent troops and economic aid to Turkey and Greece after the war
Marshall Plan – Plan to rebuild war-torn nations after WW2
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Food and Economic aid sent to any country asking (billions in US aid)
All they had to do was have a plan and promise free elections
US even offered aid to countries under Soviet control, it was rejected and the
USSR sent aid instead
This set up a race to aid countries around the globe to lure them to each side
New Conflicts Develop
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Divisions In Germany – country and capital split into 4 zones
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Berlin Airlift – Soviets tried to cut off the west from Berlin (inside E. Germany)
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The West began to fly in supplies around the clock for over a year (food & fuel)
Eventually the blockade was lifted and the West won the challenge but it
deepened the hostilities between the East and the West
Military Alliances (Mutual Defense Organizations)
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Each zone occupied by a country to maintain control and aid in rebuilding
West Germany/Berlin (US, GB, Fr) was democratic and free
East Germany/Berlin (USSR) was communist
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
WARSAW PACT (USSR and Satellite Nations)
The Arms Race – Each side tried to build more, bigger military tools


US led early with only atomic bomb
Once USSR had an atomic bomb, the race was on
Ch 18 Essays



Explain what “APPEASEMENT” is and how it led to
World War II. Give specific examples
Hitler wanted a superior race to rule over the Third
Reich. Give/explain 3 specific examples of
methods used to promote/purify the Aryan race in
Germany.
The world was determined not to repeat the errors
of the first world war. Name/explain 3 specific
examples of policies/programs used after World
War II to keep the peace
Concentration Camps
Concentration Camps
Concentration Camps
German Death Factories

Death Camp Number of Victims
 Auschwitz
2,000,000
 Belzec 850,000
 Sobibor 250,000
 Treblinka 700,000
 Chelmno 300,000
Total Deaths from Nazi Genocidal Policies

Group Deaths
 European
Jews 5,600,000 to 6,250,000
 Soviet prisoners of war 3,000,000
 Polish Catholics 3,000,000
 Serbians 700,000 (Croat Ustasa persecution)
 Roma, Sinti, and Lalleri 222,000 to 250,000
 Germans (political, religious, and Resistance) 80,000
 Germans (handicapped) 70,000
 Homosexuals 12,000
 Jehovah’s Witnesses 2500
Death Camps