Leadership

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Transcript Leadership

9
Leadership
Groups generally require
guidance as they strive to reach
their goals, and the individual
who coordinates and motivates
the group can fundamentally
shape the group’s future. If
asked, “What one thing would
you change to turn an inept
group into a productive one?”
most people would answer,
“The leader.”
 What is leadership?
 Who will emerge as a
leader?
 Who do some lead and
others follow?
 Why do some leaders
succeed and others fail?
The Nature of
Leadership
Leadership
Emergence
Theories of
Leadership
Emergence
Leadership
Effectiveness
Leadership
Myths
Who Will
Lead?
Implicit
Leadership
Fiedler’s
Contingency
What is
Leadership?
Personality
Social
Identity
Style Theories
What Do
Leaders Do?
Competencies
Social Role
LMX
Participation
Terror
Management
Participation
The Leader’s
Look
Evolutionary
Transformational
The Future of
Leadership
James MacGregor Burns writes:
Leadership is “one of the most
observed and least understood
phenomena on earth”
But much of the mystery of leadership
evaporates when studied in terms of groups
and their dynamics.
Leadership
Myths
Leadership is power (with
people rather than over
people)
Leaders are born (but leaders
are also “made”)
All groups have leaders
(shared influence and group
size)
Leadership
Myths
People resist their leaders (most
groups accept the need for a
leader)
Leaders make or break their
groups (leaders influence their
groups in significant ways)
Leaders make ALL the difference
(The “romance of leadership”
exaggerates the impact of a leader
What is
Leadership?
Leadership
defined
Guidance of
others in their
pursuits, often
by organizing,
directing,
coordinating,
supporting,
and motivating
their efforts.
• Reciprocal
(followership)
• Transactional
• Transformational
• Cooperative
• Adaptive, goal seeking
What Do Leaders
Do?
The T-R Model
THE LBDQ
Researchers at Ohio
State built these two
dimensions into
their Leader
Behavior
Description
Questionnaire
(LBDQ).
The relationship between task-oriented leadership
(structuring), relational leadership (support), and
various leadership outcomes.
Leadership Substitutes
Theory
What Do Leaders
Do?
Group Member
Characteristics
•Has ability,
experience,
training,
knowledge
• Has a need for
independence
• Has “professional
orientation”
• Is indifferent to
group rewards
Will
Neutralize
Task
Leadership
Task
Characteristics
•Is unambiguous
and routine
•Is methodologically invariant
•Provides it own
feedback
concerning
accomplishment
•Is
intrinsically
satisfying
Characteristics of
the Organization
•Formalized
(explicit plans,
goals, and areas of
responsibility)
•Inflexible (rigid,
unbending rules
and procedures)
•Highly specified
with active
advisory and staff
functions
Will
Neutralize
Relationship
Leadership
• Closely knit,
cohesive
workgroups
• Organizational
rewards not
within the
leader’s control
• Spatial distance
between
superior and
subordinate
What Do Leaders
Do?
Men: Task Leaders
Men, Women, and
Leadership
Women: Relationship
Leaders
This difference between men and women is only a tendency; it does
manifest itself across all group situations
 Assigns tasks to members
 Listens to group members
 Makes attitudes clear to the
 Easy to understand
group
 Critical of poor work
 Sees to it that the group is
working to capacity
 Coordinates activity
 Friendly and approachable
 Treats group members as
equals
 Willing to make changes
The Nature of
Leadership
Leadership
Emergence
Why Do
Theories
of
Leadership
Emergence
Who Will
Lead?
Personality
Competencies
Thomas
Carlyle’s
Great Man
Theory
Some Lead and
Leadership
Others
Follow?
Effectiveness
The history of the
world is but the
biography of great
men.
Participation
The Leader’s
Look
Note: Except for
Abraham Lincoln, who
Tolstoy believed was a
great man: “The
greatness of Napoleon,
Caesar or Washington
is only moonlight by
the sun of Lincoln.
Zeitgeist
Theory
From War and Peace:
The people of the west
moved eastwards to slay
their fellow men, and by the
law of coincidence
thousands of minute causes
fitted in and coordinated to
produce that movement and
war: …A king is history's
slave.
Leo
Tolstoy
Personality
Both Carlyle and
Tolstoy were
correct, but only
when their views
are combined:
Leadership
depends on the
qualities of the
individual, but
also the nature of
the situation.
Traits + Situations = Leadership
• The Interactional Model: Behavior is
a function of the person and the
environment (B = f (P, E)
• A variety of personality factors are
linked to leadership, including
assertiveness, dominance, and
character strengths (see Table 9.3)
• Conscientiousness and Extraversion,
in the Five Factor Model, are
particularly strong predictors of
leadership emergence.
Personality
Five Factor Model and
Leadership
Competencies
Certain
competencies are
associated with
leadership
emergence.
Groups prefer
leaders who are
somewhat more
intelligent than the
average group
member.
Emotional
intelligence is
related to
leadership
emergence and
effectiveness.
Sternberg’s
systems model of
leadership stresses
the importance of
practical and
creative
intelligence.
Participation
People who speak
more in groups are
likely to emerge as
leaders (the
babble effect),
although work by
Jones and Kelly
suggests that
quality of
comments is more
influential than
sheer quantity.
Quality Trumps Quantity
Low Quality
High Quality
5.73
4.73
3.72
Low Quantity
3.88
High Quantity
The Leader’s
Look
Leadership is associated with
demographic variables.
• Leaders tend to be older, taller, and heavier
than the average group member.
• Ethnic minorities and women are less likely to
be selected as leaders in groups.
• Glass ceiling: hidden situational and
interpersonal factors that prevent women
from gaining leadership positions.
• The bias against women is ironic because, in
general, women possess more of the skills
needed to be a successful leader.
The Nature of
Leadership
Leadership
Emergence
Theories of
Leadership
LeadershipImplicit Leadership
Effectiveness
Emergence Theory (ILTs)
Implicit
Leadership
Social
Identity
Social Role
Terror
Management
Evolutionary
Lord’s implicit leadership theory: Followers’ beliefs about what qualities
they expect in a leader—their implicit leadership theories—influence their
perceptual and cognitive reactions to leaders and potential leaders.
Implicit Leadership
Theory (ILTs)
The prototype
matching
hypothesis
suggests that
individuals
prefer leaders
who match
their ILTs, but
ILTs can
distort
members’
perceptions of
and reactions
to their
leaders.
The Prototype Matching
Hypothesis
GLOBE study of
leadership
Cross-cultural analyses of
leadership
Charismatic I:
Visionary*
Foresight
Prepared
Anticipatory
Plans Ahead *
Charismatic II:
Inspirational*
Enthusiastic
Positive
Morale Booster
Motive Arouser
Dynamic
Administratively
Competent
Orderly Administrative
Skilled
Organized
Good Administrator
Diplomatic
Diplomatic
Worldly
Win-win Problem solver
Effective Bargainer
Humane *Orientation
Generous
Compassionate
Integrity *
Honest
Sincere
Just
Trustworthy
Decisive *
Willful
Decisive
Logical
Intuitive
Team I: Collaborative
Team *
Group-oriented
Collaborative
Loyal
Consultative
Team II: Team
Integrator *
Communicative
Team Builder
Informed
Integrator
Performance
Oriented *
Improvementoriented
Performance-oriented
Procedural
Ritualistic
Formal
Habitual
Procedural
Social Identity Theory
Social identity theory assumes that leaders must “fit in” with
their group and shape the group’s identity.
Leaders tend to be prototypical: They match the group’s
identity. Effective leaders minimize qualities that set them
apart from the group.
Leaders must favor the ingroup over the outgroup.
Leaders usually condemn (or at least show distain for) the
outgroup.
Effective leaders create or strengthen the group’s identity.
Social Role Theory
Agency (and
autonomy)
• Forceful
• Task-focused
• Makes Decisions
Easily
• Dominant
• Individualistic
• Ambitious
Communal
Cheerful
Supportive
Sympathetic
Tender
Sensitive to
others needs
• Understanding
•
•
•
•
•
As Eagly and others note, these two sides of leadership
correspond to sex role expectances
Mortality salience triggers a need for charismatic
leaders
Terror Management
Theory
Awareness of
Morality
• Humans are aware of
their mortality
Existential
Anxiety
• Morality Salience (MS)
MS leads to
• Self-esteem bolstering
• Protection of worldview
• Need for a group-centered leader
Terror Management
Theory
Before evaluating these
candidates,
participants in the
mortality-salience
condition were
reminded of their
eventual demise.
The task-oriented
leader was the most
favorably rated in both
conditions . But the
charismatic leader was
rated more positive
when mortality was
salient.
Evolutionary
Basics
• Survival of the fittest
• Sexual selection
Leaders are useful in social species
• Leaders help followers survive, thrive
• Tribes with leaders are more “fit”
Results
• People readily recognize leaders
• Leadership is a resilient cultural feature
• Leadership has rewards to offset costs
Van Vugt & Spisak, 2008, suggest that the “instinct” to seek a
male leader is tuned to the situation
If women are thought to be
superior to men at maintaining
group harmony
If men are thought to be better
during conflict with other groups
Then
1. Women will be preferred as
leaders during times of
intragroup competition (and
conflict)
2. Men will be preferred if there
is trouble with another group
(intergroup)
The Nature of
Leadership
Leadership
Emergence
Theories of
Leadership
Emergence
Leadership effectiveness depends on (is “contingent
on”) both the person and the situation
Fred Fiedler’s
contingency theory
includes 1 “person”
variable (leadership
motivation, which is
task vs. relational)
and 3 situational
variables (that
combine to determine
situational
favorability)
Fiedler measured task
motivation with his wellknown “Least Preferred
Co-worker Scale”.
Think of a person with whom
you can work least well.
He or she may be someone
you work with now or
someone you knew in the
past. This coworker does
not have to be the person
you like least but should be
the person with whom you
had the most difficulty in
getting a job done.
Leadership
Effectiveness
Fiedler’s
Contingency
Style Theories
LMX
Participation
Transformational
The Future of
Leadership
Fiedler’s Contingency
Theory
High LPC leaders most
effective in
“moderately” favorable
situations
Low LPC leaders most
effective in very
favorable or very
unfavorable situations
In moderate situations,
the correlation between
LPC and Effectiveness is
POSITIVE
In highly favorable or
highly unfavorable
situations, the correlation
between LPC and
Effectiveness is NEGATIVE
Fiedler’s Contingency
Theory
Style Theories
Leadership effectiveness depends on the leader’s “style”—some
styles are more effective than others—and the match of style to
situation is also important.
Blake and Mouton’s
“leadership grid”
theory
Style Theories
Leadership effectiveness depends on the leader’s “style”—some
styles are more effective than others—and the match of style to
situation is also important.
The situational
leadership theory,
proposed by Hersey
and Blanchard,
suggests that groups
benefit from
leadership that
meshes with the
developmental stage
of the group.
LMX: Leader Member
Exchange Theory
Leader–member
exchange theory
(LMX) focuses on the
dyadic relationship
linking the leader to
each member of the
group and notes that,
in many cases, two
subgroups of linkages
exist (the inner group
and the outer group).
Groups with more
inner-group members
are more productive.
A
B
Outer group
Inner group
Leader
R
C
W
X
D
Y
E
G
F
Z
Participation
Theories
Shared
Leadership
• Co-leadership,
collective
leadership, and
peer leadership,
encourage
member-centered
leadership
methods.
“Group
Climates”
• Lewin, Lippitt, and
White compared
three types of
“group climates”:
autocratic,
democratic, and
laissez-faire.
Laissez-faire
leadership was
ineffective
compared to
democratic and
autocratic, with
members preferring
democratic.
Kelly’s
Followership
Theory
• Kelly
identifies five
types of
followers:
conformist,
passive,
pragmatic,
alienated, and
exemplary.
Lewin, Lippitt, and White compared three types of “group climates”:
autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire.
Transformational
Leadership Theories
Transformational
theories of leadership
examine how
charismatic leaders
promote change.
Leader
Follower
Burns distinguished
between transactional
leaders and
transformational
leaders and suggested
that the latter are able
to elevate both
themselves and their
followers.
Bass’s transactional-transformational
distinction
Transactional Leadership


Leaders treat their relationships with followers as a transaction:
define expectations and offer rewards, some sort of exchange
Contingent rewards: if a follower produces the desired behavior, she
will receive the contracted award (positive and negative)
Transformational Leadership




Idealized influence
Inspirational motivation
Intellectual stimulation
Individualized consideration
The Future of
Leadership
Women tend to adopt participative
and transformational styles of
leadership, whereas men are more
likely to enact autocratic, laissezfaire, and transactional styles.
Women’s skills are particularly well
suited for organizations of the
future, which will be less
hierarchical and require a
collaborative, shared approach to
leadership.
The Nature of
Leadership
Leadership
Emergence
Theories of
Leadership
Emergence
Leadership
Effectiveness
Leadership
Myths
Who Will
Lead?
Implicit
Leadership
Fiedler’s
Contingency
What is
Leadership?
Personality
Social
Identity
Style Theories
What Do
Leaders Do?
Competencies
Social Role
LMX
Participation
Terror
Management
Participation
The Leader’s
Look
Evolutionary
Transformational
The Future of
Leadership