Imperialism in China
• U.S. imperialists viewed the Philippines as
their entry way to China, and to Asia as a
• America wanted to imperialize China because
China was a prospective market for American
Spheres of influence
• Spheres of Influence- Are
areas where nations
claimed special rights &
John Hay’s Open Door Notes
• The Chinese Dynasty had become weak due to
war and foreign intervention. As various
powers of Europe and Asia took over trade
with China, they formed spheres of influence.
The U.S. didn’t have a sphere and wanted to
be a part of these trading markets!
John Hay’s Open Door Notes
• The United States began to fear that China would be carved into
colonies, and the American traders would be shut out. To prevent
this happening, U.S secretary of State, John Hay issued the Open
Door notes. The Open Door notes were series of policy statements,
which were published in 1899 .
• The Open Doors notes proposed that the nations share their rights
of trading with the United States, which would create an open door.
The notes were letters, which were sent to the leaders of imperialist
• Because of these, no single nation would have monopoly (trust) on
trade with any part of China. The imperialist powers accepted the
Boxer Rebellion in China
The Boxer Rebellion began in late
June of 1900 in northern China
where violence erupted toward
European investors that built
Railroads, mines, and had taken
over large cities in China. The
following The Boxers had also not
liked the Qing dynasty who was
ruling China at this time and started
to rebel against them too. The
Imperial army joined with the
Boxers to attack the cities of
Tientsin and Peking. But surely
enough 2 months later international
forces put an end to the Boxer
After the Boxer Rebellion
• The U.S. was afraid that European nations’ would use
their victory to dominate their trading powers with
• To prohibit this from happening, John Hay issued a
second series of Open Door Notes, which provided
America with the tools for greater influence in Asia.
• September 7th, 1901, the Boxer Protocol was signed by
China and 11 other countries. This protocol was a final
settlement of the Boxer Rebellion. The Quig
government approved of executing some Chinese
officials, punishing people, and paying approximately
$332 million in repairs.
Protecting American rights
John Hay, fearing European powers issued
the 2nd Open Door notes which safeguarded
trade with China.
These notes had 3 main American beliefs.
1. American economy thrives on the growth
2. The U.S. can interfere with foreign markets.
3. Closing an area to American goods
threatened the survival of the U.S..
These Beliefs became the backbone of American
Protecting American Rights
• Three deeply held beliefs about the U.S industrial capitalist
economy was reflected in the Open Door policy. Americans
believed that the growth of the U.S economy depended on
exports. Second, they felt that the U.S had the right to come
between foreign parts of the country or land to keep foreign
markets open. Third, they were scared that the closing of an area
to American products citizens, or ideas threatened U.S survival