RUSH PROTOCOL Rapid Ultrasound for Shock

download report

Transcript RUSH PROTOCOL Rapid Ultrasound for Shock

Ultrasound (US)-- “resuscitative.”

 Patients with hypotension or shock  Ultrasound is ideal for the evaluation of critically ill patients in shock, and ACEP guidelines  Direct visualization of pathology and differentiation of shock states.

 The RUSH Protocol first introduced in 2006 by Weingart SD et al, and later published in 2009. It was designed to be a rapid and easy to perform US protocol (<2 min) by most emergency physicians.

What US probes do you need for the RUSH protocol?

 Phased-array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)  Linear probe (7.5 – 10 MHz) 

What are the components of the RUSH protocol?

 The components of the RUSH exam are: Heart, Inferior vena cava (IVC), Morrison’s/FAST abdominal views, Aorta, and Pneumothorax (HI-MAP).

 A more simple method is to think of:  Pump (Heart): Tamponade, LVEF, and RV size   Tank (Intravascular): IVC, thoracic and abdominal compartments Pipes (Large Arteries/Veins): Aorta and femoral/popliteal veins

Summary Table

Resuscitation 2013 conference

How do you evaluate the PUMP?

 Component: Heart (parasternal long axis view)  Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)  Location: Just left of the sternum, 3rd and 4th intercostal space 

Finding: Pericardial effusion (tamponade)

 Small effusions are best identified posterior to left ventricle (dependent portion of pericardium)  Can find compression of the right ventricle ( Singh S et al Sens 92%, Spec 100%, PPV 100%)

Finding: Left ventricular ejection fraction estimation

 Look at anterior leaflet of mitral valve, which should normally touch septum  

Finding: Right ventricular strain

 <30% difference of LV size between systole and diastole indicates severely decreased LV function Normally RV should be 60% of LV size (If RV = LV size, this is abnormal)  Lodato JC et al : If McConnell Sign (reduction in RV free wall motility with sparing of the apex) is present, specificity for PE is 96%, but sensitivity is 16%.

 Component: Heart (Subxiphoid)  Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)  Location: Subxiphoid, point toward left scapula

How do you evaluate the TANK?

 Component: Inferior Vena Cava  Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)  Location: Subxiphoid, slide to patient's right 

Finding: Intravascular volume estimation

   IVC <2 cm in diameter and inspiratory collapse greater than 50% approximates CVP <10 cmH20 IVC >2 cm in diameter and inspiratory collapse less than 50% approximates CVP >10 cmH20 Not applicable for intubated patients. Spontaneously breathing patients create negative intrathoracic pressure. ventilated patients create positive intrathoracic pressure.

 Component: FAST abdominal views  Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)  Location: Hepatorenal recess, Splenorenal recess, and bladder 

Finding: Internal blood loss

 Component: Pneumothorax  Probe: Linear probe (7.5 – 10 MHz)  Location: Midclavicular line, 3rd – 5th intercostal space 

Finding: Intrathoracic compromise

 Normal: Should see lung sliding and comet tails. M-Mode will look like "waves on a beach".

 Pneumothorax present: NO lung sliding and NO comet tails. M-Mode will look like a "bar graph" (no beach).

How do you evaluate the PIPES?

 Component: Aorta  Probe: Phased array probe (3.5 - 5 MHz)  Location: Longitudinal and transverse views of aorta at 4 levels (infracardiac, suprarenal, infrarenal, and right at the iliac bifurcation)  Measurement >3 cm is abnormal. If >5 cm consider ruptured AAA if no other cause found.

 Most AAAs located below the renal arteries

RUSH protocol to medical patients EFAST exam to trauma patients.