Transcript here

The Four Purusarthas

“ Kamala” Jordan C.

Jenae R.

Taylor V.

Hunter B.

Hindu Beliefs (4 goals of human life)

• • • • Dharma Kama Artha Moksha


• • • • The moral balance of all things Order and customs which make life and universe possible The noun dharma derived from the word root “dhr” means “to hold, maintain, keep”. Other definitons: – Right way of living – Path of righteousness – Duty – Moral law


Non-violence Law and Justice Personal Behaviors Duties Rituals and Rites of Passage


• "Dharma means the intrinsic nature of a thing. Just like the dharma of sugar is sweetness and the dharma of water is wetness. The dharma of the living being is to render service to God. Therefore everyone serves God without fail, either directly or indirectly. The devotees serve Him directly and the non devotees serve Him indirectly."


• • • Broader sense- means desire/longing Narrow sense- Sexual desire Both Buddhism and Hinduism consider this as the root cause of human suffering.

Kama (Vedes)

• • Concept of Kama is known to be found in Vedas. – Ex) book 10 of Rig Veda describes the creation of the universe from nothing by the great heat. There in hymn 129, it states: कामस्तदग्रे समवर्तर्ाधि मनसो रेर्ः परथमं यदासीर् | सर्ो बन्धुमसधर् धनरधवन्दन हधदत परर्ीष्याकवयो मनीषा || [10] • “Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire the primal seed and germ of Spirit, Sages who searched with their heart's thought discovered the existent's kinship in the non-existent.” — Rig Veda , ~ 15th Century BC [11]

Kama (Upanishads)

• • • Brhadaranyaka Upanishad(one of the oldest Upanishads of Hinduism),uses the term kama as any desire: Man consists of desire (kāma), As his desire is, so is his determination, As his determination is, so is his deed, Whatever his deed is, that he attains.

— Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad , 7th Century BC [12]

(Kama)la – Hindu Goddess of Love

• • A very high prices Indian Courtesan, trained in the art of love. Siddhartha lusts for her love (Desires her sexually) , but she will not be with him.. Due to the fact of his dirty cloths and not being clean.

He needs to earn money in order to pay for her services.


Kama -Courtesan

• • • • • High class call girls Taught about love Cost a lot Desired by all Only those of certain standing could have them

Kama- Courtesan


• Definitions: – Wealth – Money – Possessions – Worldly Prosperity – Profit – Attainment of riches (powerful urge in human nature)


• • • The efforts of means to realizing this goal: must have a righteous and moral basis.

(lawful means) Siddh/artha – Sidd = achieved – Artha = what was searched for • “he was has found meaning of existence”.


• In order for Siddhartha to get Kamala, he must find Artha (wealth).

Moksha (Nirvana)

• • • • • • • Salvation Freedom Liberation from rebirth Emancipation Release State of changeless bliss Appears in Upanishads as “Mucyate”


• It is achieved by living a life of – Religious devotion – Moral integrity – No interest in worldly things, Can be lifetimes on the wheel of life till Moksha (Nirvana) is achieved. Reward: release from samsara and union with God.

Moksha senses

• • • Eschtological: Connects to freedom from Samsara, the cycle of death, and rebirth.

Epistemological: connects freedom, self realization, and self-knowledge. Concept is found in Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.


• “It was through me the Creator himself gained liberating knowledge, I am being, conciousness, bliss, eternal freedom: unsullied, unlimited, unending.

My perfect consciousness shines your world, like a beautiful face in a soiled mirror, Seeing that reflection I wish myself you, an individual soul, as if I could be finite!” • “A finite soul, an infinite Goddess - these are false concepts, in the minds of those unacquainted with truth, No space, my loving devotee, exists between your self and my self, Know this and you are free. This is the secret wisdom.” —Sarasvati Rahasya Upanishad,


Works Cited (URLS)

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