슬라이드 1 - Prof.Nam's classes -2015
슬라이드 1 - Prof.Nam's classes -2015
Communicative Competence (Canale and Swain, 1980)
Grammatical competence: words and rules
What words do I use? How do I put them into phrases and
Sociolinguistic competence: appropriateness
Which words and phrases fit this setting and this topic? How can I
express a specific attitude (courtesy, authority, friendliness,
respect) when I need to?
Strategic competence: appropriate use of communication strategies
How can I express my ideas if I don’t know the name of
something or the right verb form to use?
Discourse competence (Canale,1983) Cohesion/ Coherence
How are words, phrases and sentences put together to create
conversations, speeches, email messages, newspaper articles?
Communicative Language Teaching is best
considered an approach rather than a method.
Thus, there is much greater room for individual
interpretation and variation than most
methods permit (Richards and Rogers, 1986, p. 83)
Common misconceptions concerning the meaning of CLT
not teaching grammar,
teaching only speaking,
expecting too much from teachers
Fluency at the expense of accuracy
Q: Ellis (1982) suggests that the communicative activities are
sufficient for acquisition to take place. What do you think?
Restructuring of "grammar" principally takes place when learners
attend to and notice features in input (Schmidt, 1990).
For L2 grammatical development to occur, learners must pay
attention to form and notice gaps between the provisional state
of their grammatical knowledge and the communicative demand
of the context(Loschky and Bley-Vroman, 1993).
The idea of attention to form differs from explicit formal
instruction. Long (1991) distinguishes between focus on
forms and focus on form.
Focus on forms---similar to traditional grammar teaching
(primary purpose is to teach language forms in isolation).
Focus on form--- attempts to draw the student's attention to
linguistic forms as they arise in activities whose primary
focus is on meaning.
Q: Are the authentic materials always good?
In an ideal communicative language teaching…
Classroom goals are focused on all of the
components of communicative competence.
Language techniques are designed to engage
learners in the pragmatic, authentic, functional use of
language for meaningful purposes.
Fluency and accuracy are seen as complementary principles
underlying communicative techniques.
Students ultimately have to use the language,
productively and receptively (Brown, 1994, p. 245)
When you apply Communicative Language Teaching to your own
teaching, you might want to check these out.
Does the format and material of the lesson not only provide
useful "input" for the learner but also lead to "output" and
language production by the learner?
Does the material and the format help to generate
spontaneous language use that is not easily predictable?
Does your lesson contain something that helps the learners to
improve their generative and pragmatic competence rather
than simply use fossilised resources?
The Characteristics of classroom activities
To develop students’ communicative competence through linking
grammatical development to the ability to communicate. Hence,
grammar is not taught in isolation but often arises out of a
To create the need for communication, interaction, and negotiation of
meaning through the use of activities such as problem solving,
information sharing, and role play.
To personalize learning by applying what they have learned to their
own lives. Classroom materials typically make use of authentic texts
to create interest and to provide valid models of language.
Q: Create a communicative activity that promotes both fluency and