Transcript Slide 1

Security Operations

Domain Objectives • Protection and Control of Data Processing Resources • • • Media Management Backups and Recovery Change Control • Privileged Entity Control • Categories of Controls 2

Operations Security Focus Areas • Auditors • Support Staff • Vendors • Security • Programmers • Operators • Engineers • Administrators • Hardware • Software • Media • Peopleware • Remote Storage • Backups • Tape Library 3

Information Security TRIAD

Availability Information Security Integrity Confidentiality


Domain Agenda •

Resource Protection

• Continuity of Operations • Change Control Management • Privileged Entity Control 5

Facility Support Systems As discussed within the Physical Security domain, the support systems in a centralized or decentralized Operations center must be protected. 6

Facility Support Systems • Fire Protection • HVAC • Electric Power 7

Facility Support Systems • Water • Communications 8

Risk of Physical Access to Equipment • Reduce risk or impact of threats resulting from unauthorized physical access 9

Media Management • Another objective of Operations Security is to protect storage media 10

Object Reuse • The reassignment of a storage medium that previously contained one or more objects • To be securely reassigned, no residual data can be available to the new subject through standard system mechanisms • Disclosure • Contamination 11

Clearing of Magnetic Media • Overwriting • Degausser • Physical Destruction 12

Media Management Practices

Destroying Marking Declassifying Sensitive Media Controls Labeling Storing Handling


Misuse Prevention

Threats Personal Use Theft of Media Fraud Sniffers Countermeasures

Acceptable use policy, workstation controls, content filtering, email filtering Appropriate media controls Balancing of input/output reports, separation of duties, verification of information Encryption 14

Records Management • Records Management Program Development • Guidelines • Records Retention 15

Domain Agenda • • • • Resource Protection

Continuity of Operations

Change Control Management Privileged Entity Control 16

Software & Data Backup • Operation controls must ensure adequate backups of: • • • Data Operating Systems Applications • • • Transactions Configurations Reports 17

RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Disks • Backup of Data stored on Disk Drives • Hardware-based • Software-based • Use of a Hot Spare 18

RAID Level 0 • Stripes data evenly across two or more disks with no parity information for redundancy to increase system performance

A1 A3 A5 A7 RAID 0 A2 A4 A6 A8


RAID Level 1 • Creates an exact copy (or mirror) of a set of data on two or more disks 20

RAID Level 2 • • Stripes data at the bit level using a Hamming Code for error correction Requires 39 disks! 21

RAID Level 3 • Uses byte-level striping with a dedicated parity disk

Stripe 1A Stripe 2A Stripe 3A Stripe 4A Disk A RAID 3 Stripe 1B Stripe 2B Stripe 3B Stripe 4B Disk B P(1A, 1B) P(2A, 2B) P(3A, 3B) P(4A, 4B) Parity Drive


RAID Level 4 • Uses block-level striping with a dedicated parity disk • Similar to RAID 3 except that it stripes at the block, rather than the byte level 23

RAID Level 5 • Uses block-level striping with parity data distributed across all member disks

Stripe 1A P(2B, 2C) Stripe 3A Stripe 4A Disk A RAID 5 Stripe 1B Stripe 2B P(3A, 3C) Stripe 4B Disk B P(1A, 1B) Stripe 2C Stripe 3C P(4A, 4B) Disk C


RAID Level 6 • RAID 6 extends RAID 5 by adding an additional parity block, thus it uses block-level striping with two parity blocks distributed across all member disks • Like RAID 5, the parity is distributed in stripes with the parity blocks in a different place in each stripe 25

RAID Level 0+1 • • Used for both mirroring and striping data among disks A hard drive failure in one array can be recovered from the other array

A1 RAID 0 A2 RAID 0+1 RAID 1 A1 RAID 0 A2 A3 A5 A7 A4 A6 A8 A3 A5 A7 A4 A6 A8


RAID Level 10 • Also known as

RAID 1+0

• Very high reliability combined with performance

RAID 10 RAID 0 A1 RAID 1 A1 A3 A5 A7 A3 A5 A7 A2 RAID 1 A2 A4 A6 A8 A4 A6 A8


Redundant Array of Independent Tapes (RAIT) • Level 1 RAIT • Using tapes rather than disk • Real-time mirroring 28

Hot Spares • An unused backup array disk that is part of the array group • Hot spares remain in standby mode • Types of Hot Spares • • Global Hot Spare Dedicated Hot Spare 29

Other Backup Types • File Image • Data Mirroring • Electronic Vaulting • Remote Journaling • Database Shadowing • Redundant Servers/Standby Services 30

Fault Tolerance • Usually refers to Hardware failure • The system recognizes a failure has occurred • Automatically takes corrective action 31

System Recovery - Trusted Recovery • Correct implementation • Ensure that failures and discontinuities of operation don't compromise a system's secure operation 32

Types of Trusted Recovery System Reboot Emergency System Restart System Cold Start 33

Fail Secure To fail in a way that will cause no harm, or a minimal amount of harm, to other devices or danger to personnel, but doesn’t cause the system to be insecure.


Operational Incident Handling • First line of Defense • Logging, Tracking and Analysis of Incidents • Escalation and Notification 35

Incident Response Team • Benefits • Learning to respond efficiently to an incident • Priorities 36

Contingency Plans Power Failure - UPS System Failure Denial of Service Intrusion Tampering

Business Continuity Plans Detailed Recovery Procedures


Specific Operational Contingency Preparations • System Failure • Denial of Service • Tampering or Intrusions • Production Delays • I/O Errors 38

Domain Agenda • Resource Protection • Continuity of Operations •

Change Control Management

• Privileged Entity Control 39

Change Control Management • Integrated with Business and IT Initiatives • Sets out change control process and ownership of changes • Ensures that all changes are reviewed for potential security impact 40

Change Control Committee • Objectives • Ensure all changes are • • • • • Properly tested Authorized Scheduled Communicated Documented 41

Change Control Procedures

Request Impact Assessment Approval Build/ Test Implement Monitor


Configuration Management • The control of changes made to: • Hardware • Software • Firmware • Documentation • Test fixtures and test documentation conducted throughout the system lifecycle 43

Hardware Inventory and Configuration •

Hardware Inventory -

An overview of the hardware installed on any automated system •

Hardware Configuration Chart -

Details the configuration of the system 44

Protection of Operational Files • Library Maintenance • Backups • Source Code • Object Code • Configuration files • Librarian 45

Documentation • Requirements • • Format Copies 46

Patch Management • Identification of Patches • Patch Testing • Rollout • Deployment challenges 47

Domain Agenda • Resource Protection • Continuity of Operations • Change Control Management •

Privileged Entity Control


Operator Privileges • Operates and monitors mainframe and mid-range computers and peripheral equipment, such as printers, tape and disk drives 49

Administrator Privileges • Responsible for running technically advanced information systems which includes the setup and maintenance of computers and networks • • Systems Administrators Network Administrators 50

Security Administrator Privileges • Security administration including: • Policy • Development • Implementation • Maintenance and compliance • Vulnerability Assessments • Incident Response 51

Control Over Privileged Entities • Review of access rights • Supervision • Monitoring 52

Domain Summary • Operations Security dealt with • Resource protection • Continuity of Operations • Change Control Management • Privileged Entity Control 53

“Security Transcends Technology”