Shelmerdine Chapter 29

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Transcript Shelmerdine Chapter 29

C.W. Shelmerdine
Introduction to Greek
2nd edition
(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)
Chapter 29
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Adverbs
ἔχω + adverb
μάλα, μᾶλλον, μάλιστα
The interrogative pronoun/adjective
The indefinite pronoun/adjective
Interrogative and indefinite adverbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
3. Adverbs
•
Adverbs in Greek derive from case forms of
nouns. In some cases, their origin as a case was
completely forgotten.
–
•
For example, some feminine dative singular forms
function as adverbs: ταύτῃ “this way” κοινῇ “in
common” λάθρᾳ “in secret” ἰδίᾳ “individually”
As such, adverbs frequently resemble noun
forms and consistently accent like nouns.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
3. Adverbs
•
Basic forms of all three degrees of adverbs are
identical with, or nearly so, specific forms of the
adjectives from which they derive.
– Positive degree is the genitive plural with –ς
replacing the final -ν.
• σοφός -ή -όν “wise”  σοφῶν  σοφῶς
“wisely”
•
The ending derives from the lost ablative case.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
3. Adverbs
•
Basic forms of all three degrees of adverbs are
identical with, or nearly so, specific forms of the
adjectives from which they derive.
– Comparative degree is the neuter singular
nom/acc.
• σοφώτερος -α -ον “wiser”  σοφώτερον
“more wisely”
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
3. Adverbs
•
Basic forms of all three degrees of adverbs are
identical with, or nearly so, specific forms of the
adjectives from which they derive.
– Superlative degree is the neuter plural nom/acc.
• σοφώτατος -η -ον “wisest”  σοφώτατα
“most wisely”
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Adverbs
ἔχω + adverb
μάλα, μᾶλλον, μάλιστα
The interrogative pronoun/adjective
The indefinite pronoun/adjective
Interrogative and indefinite adverbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
2. ἔχω + adverb:
•
Greek uses ἔχω + an adverb to indicate a state of
being, where English colloquially uses “be,” “do,” or
“go.”
– πῶς ἔχεις; “How are you?” or “How’s it going?” or
–
–
–
–
“How are you doing?”
ἔχω καλῶς. “I’m doing fine.” or “I’m fine.”
κακῶς ἔχει. “It’s bad.” or “It’s going badly.”
τούτως ἔχει. “That’s how it goes.” or “That’s how it
is.”
Cf. εὖ λέγεις. “That’s good.” (literally, “You speak well”  “You
speak good news”). Cf. English “eulogy”
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Adverbs
ἔχω + adverb
μάλα, μᾶλλον, μάλιστα
The interrogative pronoun/adjective
The indefinite pronoun/adjective
Interrogative and indefinite adverbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
3. μάλα, μᾶλλον, μάλιστα
•
Like English, Greek has generic comparative and
superlative adverbs.
–
Positive degree
• μάλα “much, very”
– Comparative degree
• μᾶλλον “more”
– Superlative degree
• μάλιστα “most”
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Adverbs
ἔχω + adverb
μάλα, μᾶλλον, μάλιστα
The interrogative pronoun/adjective
The indefinite pronoun/adjective
Interrogative and indefinite adverbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
4. The interrogative pronoun/adjective
•
•
•
•
•
•
This chapter introduces the interrogative
pronoun in Greek. This pronoun serves the
function of “who?” “what?” “which?” “whose?”
and “whom?” in English.
Who is speaking?
What are they saying?
Which (or what) horse do you like?
Whose horse is that?
To whom are you speaking?
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
4. The interrogative pronoun/adjective
•
•
The interrogative pronoun τίς τί has the stem
τιν– and uses third declension endings.
It ALWAYS bears an acute accent on its first
syllable.
–
–
Even single-syllable forms never change their accent
to a grave as other words normally do.
τίς λέγει; Who is speaking?
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
4. The interrogative pronoun/adjective
•
The interrogative pronoun τίς τί Who? What?:
Masc/Fem
τίς τίνες
Neuter
τί
τίνα
τίνος τίνων
τίνι τίσι
τίνα τίνας
τί
τίνα
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
4. The interrogative pronoun/adjective
•
•
τίς λέγει; Who is speaking?
τί λέγουσιν; What are they saying?
–
•
•
•
τί sometimes translates better as “why?” (“Why are
they saying that?”
φιλεῖς τίνα ἵππον; Which (or what) horse do
you like?
τίνος ἵππος ἐστίν; Whose horse is that?
τίνι λέγεις; To whom are you speaking?
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Adverbs
ἔχω + adverb
μάλα, μᾶλλον, μάλιστα
The interrogative pronoun/adjective
The indefinite pronoun/adjective
Interrogative and indefinite adverbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
5. The indefinite pronoun/adjective
•
•
This chapter introduces the indefinite
pronoun/adjective τις τι in Greek.
The indefinite forms look exactly like the
interrogative forms, except the indefinite forms
are all enclitic (and thus normally have no
accent), while the interrogative forms must bear
an acute accent.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
5. The indefinite pronoun/adjective
•
τις τι follows a word it modifies, usually
immediately after it as an enclitic suffix.
–
–
–
τίς λέγει; Who is speaking?
τίς Ἀθηναῖος λέγει; What Athenian is speaking?
Ἀθηναῖός τις λέγει. Some Athenian is speaking.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
5. The indefinite pronoun/adjective
•
τις τι, as an enclitic, can never begin a clause:
–
–
–
–
τίς λέγει; Who is speaking?
ὁ Ἀθηναῖος λέγει. The Athenian is speaking.
Ἀθηναῖός τις λέγει. Some Athenian is speaking.
λέγει τις. Someone is speaking.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Adverbs
ἔχω + adverb
μάλα, μᾶλλον, μάλιστα
The interrogative pronoun/adjective
The indefinite pronoun/adjective
Interrogative and indefinite adverbs
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
6. Interrogative and indefinite adverbs
•
Like τίς τί/τις τι, six other adverbs in Greek have
enclitic indefinite and accented interrogative forms:
Indefinite (& enclitic)
πῃ (somehow)
ποθεν (from somewhere)
ποι (to somewhere)
που (somewhere)
ποτε (some time)
πως (somehow)
Interrogative
πῇ (how?)
πόθεν (where from?)
ποῖ (where to?)
ποῦ (where?)
πότε (when?)
πῶς (how?)
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
There is a .pdf posted in Moodle which arranges all the
enclitics in Greek together on one page.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
for tomorrow (Tuesday, April 5, 2011):
• Quiz: vocabulary.
– Interrogative adverbs: omit πόθεν, ποῖ
– Indefinite adverbs: omit ποθέν, ποι
• Biblical Reading for Chapter 29.
• No class meeting Wednesday April 6 or Thursday
April 7, 2011.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
ὁ δὲ Κῦρος, ὅτε ἦν δεκαετὴς καὶ ἔτι ἐνομίζετο εἶναι παῖς
τοῦ βουκόλου, ἔπαιζεν ἐν τῇ κώμῃ μετ' ἄλλων τινῶν
παίδων. καὶ οὗτοι παίζοντες εἵλοντο ἑαυτῶν βασιλέα
εἶναι αὐτόν. τοῦ δὲ Κύρου κελεύσαντος, οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν
οἰκίας παρεσκεύαζον, οἱ δὲ δορυφόροι ἦσαν, οἱ δὲ ἄλλα
ἔργα ἐποίουν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
ὁ δὲ Κῦρος,
ὅτε ἦν δεκαετὴς
καὶ ἔτι ἐνομίζετο εἶναι παῖς τοῦ βουκόλου,
ἔπαιζεν ἐν τῇ κώμῃ μετ' ἄλλων τινῶν παίδων.
καὶ οὗτοι παίζοντες εἵλοντο ἑαυτῶν βασιλέα εἶναι αὐτόν.
τοῦ δὲ Κύρου κελεύσαντος,
οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν οἰκίας παρεσκεύαζον,
οἱ δὲ δορυφόροι ἦσαν,
οἱ δὲ ἄλλα ἔργα ἐποίουν.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
τούτων δὴ τῶν παίδων τις, παῖς ὢν Ἀρτεμβάρους, ἀνδρὸς
δοκίμου ἐν Μήδοις, οὐ γὰρ δὴ ἐποίησεν ἃ ὁ Κῦρος
προσέταξεν, ἐκέλευε ὁ Κῦρος τοὺς ἄλλους παῖδας αὐτὸν
λαβεῖν. πειθομένων δὲ τῶν παίδων, ὁ Κῦρος τὸν παῖδα
μάστιγι ἐκόλασεν· ὁ δὲ, ἐπεὶ ἀπέφυγεν, μάλιστα
ὀργιζόμενος ἤγγειλε τὸ γενόμενον τῷ πατρί.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
τούτων δὴ τῶν παίδων τις,
παῖς ὢν Ἀρτεμβάρους, ἀνδρὸς δοκίμου ἐν Μήδοις,
οὐ γὰρ δὴ ἐποίησεν ἃ ὁ Κῦρος προσέταξεν,
ἐκέλευε ὁ Κῦρος τοὺς ἄλλους παῖδας αὐτὸν λαβεῖν.
πειθομένων δὲ τῶν παίδων,
ὁ Κῦρος τὸν παῖδα μάστιγι ἐκόλασεν·
ὁ δὲ, ἐπεὶ ἀπέφυγεν, μάλιστα ὀργιζόμενος
ἤγγειλε τὸ γενόμενον τῷ πατρί.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
ὁ δ' Ἀρτεμβάρης, ὀργῇ ὡς εἶχε ἐλθὼν παρὰ τὸν Ἀστυάγη
καὶ ἅμα ἄγων τὸν παῖδα, εἶπεν, Ὦ βασιλεῦ, ὑπὸ τοῦ σοῦ
δούλου, βουκόλου δὲ παιδὸς ὧδε ὑβρίζμεθα, δεικνὺς τοὺς
τοῦ παιδὸς ὤμους. ἀκούσας δὲ καὶ ἰδών, ὁ Ἀστυάγης
ἐθέλων κολάσαι τὸν παῖδα τιμῆς τῆς Ἀρτεμβάρους ἕνεκα,
μετεπέμπετο τὸν τε βουκόλον καὶ τὸν παῖδα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
ὁ δ' Ἀρτεμβάρης,
ὀργῇ ὡς εἶχε ἐλθὼν παρὰ τὸν Ἀστυάγη
καὶ ἅμα ἄγων τὸν παῖδα,
εἶπεν,
Ὦ βασιλεῦ,
ὑπὸ τοῦ σοῦ δούλου, βουκόλου δὲ παιδὸς ὧδε ὑβρίζμεθα,
δεικνὺς τοὺς τοῦ παιδὸς ὤμους.
ἀκούσας δὲ καὶ ἰδών,
ὁ Ἀστυάγης ἐθέλων κολάσαι τὸν παῖδα
τιμῆς τῆς Ἀρτεμβάρους ἕνεκα,
μετεπέμπετο τὸν τε βουκόλον καὶ τὸν παῖδα.
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
…Καὶ τίς ἐστίν μου πλησίον; 30 ὑπολαβὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς
εἶπεν, Ἄνθρωπός τις κατέβαινεν ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ εἰς
Ἰεριχὼ καὶ λῃσταῖς περιέπεσεν, οἳ καὶ ἐκδύσαντες αὐτὸν
καὶ πληγὰς ἐπιθέντες ἀπῆλθον ἀφέντες ἡμιθανῆ.
ἀφέντες masc. nom. pl. aor. part. act.
< ἀφίημι let go, leave
ἐκδύω strip off
ἐπιθέντες < ἐπι-τίθημι put on
ἡμιθανής –ές half-dead
καταβαίνω walk down, descend
λῃστής –οῦ ὁ robber
περιέπεσεν < περιπίπτω encounter
πληγή -ῆς ἡ beating
πλησίον near, neighbor
ὑπολαμβάνω answer, take up
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
31 κατὰ συγκυρίαν δὲ ἱερεύς τις κατέβαινεν ἐν τῇ ὁδῷ
ἐκείνῃ, καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὸν ἀντιπαρῆλθεν· 32 ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ
Λευίτης [γενόμενος] κατὰ τὸν τόπον ἐλθὼν καὶ ἰδὼν
ἀντιπαρῆλθεν.
ἀντιπαρέρχομαι
pass by (παρά) on the other side (ἀντί)
καταβαίνω walk down, descend
ὁμοίως likewise, the same way
συγκυρία –ας ἡ chance, coincidence
τόπος –ου ὁ way, path
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
33 Σαμαρίτης δέ τις ὁδεύων ἦλθεν κατ’ αὐτὸν καὶ ἰδὼν
ἐσπλαγχνίσθη, 34 καὶ προσελθὼν κατέδησεν τὰ
τραύματα αὐτοῦ ἐπιχέων ἔλαιον καὶ οἶνον, ἐπιβιβάσας δὲ
αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ ἴδιον κτῆνος ἤγαγεν αὐτὸν εἰς πανδοχεῖον
καὶ ἐπεμελήθη αὐτοῦ.
ἔλαιον –ου τό olive oil
ἐπιβιβάζω place upon
ἐπιμελέομαι care for/about
ἐπιχέω pour on
ἴδιος –α -ον his/her own
καταδέω bind up, bandage
κτῆνος –ους τό animal
ὁδεύω travel (do the road)
οἶνος –ου ὁ wine
πανδοχεῖον –ου τό inn
προσέρχομαι go to
σπλαγχνίζομαι have pity
τραύμα –ατος τό wound
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
35 καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν αὔριον ἐκβαλὼν ἔδωκεν δύο δηνάρια τῷ
πανδοχεῖ καὶ εἶπεν, Ἐπιμελήθητι αὐτοῦ, καὶ ὅ τι ἂν
προσδαπανήσῃς ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ ἐπανέρχεσθαί με ἀποδώσω
σοι. 36 τίς τούτων τῶν τριῶν πλησίον δοκεῖ σοι γεγονέναι
τοῦ ἐμπεσόντος εἰς τοὺς λῃστάς; 37 ὁ δὲ εἶπεν, Ὁ ποιήσας
τὸ ἔλεος μετ’ αὐτοῦ. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Πορεύου καὶ
σὺ ποίει ὁμοίως.
αὔριον tomorrow, the next day
γεγονέναι perfect inf. < γίγνομαι
δηνάριον –ου τό denarius [a coin]
δοκέω appear seem
δύο two
ἐκβάλλω take out
ἔλεος –ους τό mercy
ἐμπεσόντος < ἐμπίπτω encounter
ἐπανέρχομαι return
ἐπιμελέομαι care for/about
λῃστής –οῦ ὁ robber
ὁμοίως likewise, the same way
πανδοχεύς –έως ὁ innkeeper
πλησίον near, neighbor
προσδαπανέω spend additionally
τρεῖς, τρία three
Shelmerdine Chapter 29
No class meeting Wednesday April 6 or Thursday
April 7, 2011.
for next class (Monday, April 11, 2011):
• Quiz: parsing on Chapter 29 Biblical Reading
• Read Chapter 30