Transcript Zambrano Patricia
Hiding in Plain Sight
Gender and GM crops
Patricia Zambrano, IFPRI Isidore Lobnibe, Western Oregon University, Daylinda B. Cabanilla, UPLB, Jorge H. Maldonado, U. de Los Andes Jose Falck Zepeda, IFPRI 17th ICABR Conference Ravello, June 21, 2013 INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
• • • • • Is gender relevant? Why use a qualitative approach?
Burkina Faso, Colombia, and the Philippines gender pilot case studies Similarities and differences Future research?
• Gender neutral, but mainly male • Household as unit of analysis • Sole and efficient HH decision makers Misspecification: Biased and inconsistent models Policy implications
• • Gender roles are determined by cultural, ideological, religious, economic and social relationship between men and women and affect the distribution of resources between men and women It is one of the determinants in technology adoption
Economics Literature about the Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops in Developing Economies
http://ebrary.ifpri.org/cdm/landingpage/collection/p15738coll6 Compiled by Indira Yerramareddy, Patricia Zambrano, and Jose Falck Zepeda
Gender and GM
Of the 135 papers in bEcon than that assess the economic impact of GM crops on farmers we found only a handful that made explicit references to gender.
To explore whether gender affects access to and use of GM cotton, we developed and tested a qualitative approach in Colombia, as well as Burkina Faso and later for GM maize in the Philippines
Lobnibe, I., Zambrano, P., and Biermayr-Jenzano, P. 2012. Field Report on Gender and GM cotton in Burkina Faso. Project report. Washington DC.
Zambrano, P., J. H. Maldonado, S. L. Mendoza, L. Ruiz, L.A. Fonseca, and I. Cardona. 2011. Women cotton farmers: Their perceptions and experiences with transgenic varieties. IFPRI Discussion Paper 01118. Washington, D.C. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Zambrano, P., M. Smale, J. H. Maldonado, and S. L. Mendoza. 2012. Unweaving the Threads: The Experiences of Female Farmers with Biotech Cotton in Colombia. AgBioForum 15(2): 125-137
Yorobe, M., Jr., and D. Cabanilla. 2013. Gender Impacts from the adoption of genetically modified maize in the Philippines. Draft final report submitted to the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Project report. Los Banos, the Philippines.
Economic assessment of commercialized GM crops in Burkina Faso, Colombia, and Philippines
Documented economic benefits
Absence of gender considerations Page 9
Colombia, 2010 Burkina Faso, 2011
GM cotton Cerete, Cordoba and El Espinal, Tolma Dahoun, Hounde, Dimikuy, and Bereba in Tuy Province Dano in Ioba Province
GM Maize Barangay Olympog in General Santos City ,South Cotabato, Barangay Cabisera 5 in Ilagan, Isabela
Population, total mill GDP per capita (constant 2000 US$) Urban population (% of total) Agriculture, value added (% of GDP) Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) Labor force participation rate, female (% of female population ages 15-64 ) Agricultural raw materials exports (% of merchandise exports) Burkina Faso Colombia Philippines
Qualitative Research Design
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Small group discussion (SGD) Participant observation Expert opinion interviews One-to-one interviews Secondary data collection
Corroboration of the comparative qualitative findings presented here need to be followed up with quantitative studies to confirm the extent and representativeness of these observations. Page 14
Inheritance rights Access to land Access to credit, farm inputs Ability to hire personnel Access to information, extension services Equal partners with head of HH as crop producers Work contribution in HH/male plots Active participation in overall crop operation Invisible or undervalued crop related activities Control and responsibility over HH finances
Control of crop operation Burkina Faso
Granted by head of HH
A new focus?
Access and control of assets are key determinant in technology adoption The comparison between Burkina, and Colombia/Philippines suggests that even when women have such access they still have other binding limitations – Social and cultural norms Time and other limitations
Qualitative methods uncovered many activities that show women involvement in the overall cotton and maize operation GM varieties have introduced changes in farming practices that affect women and men differently
• • • • Overall men and women perceive GM as beneficial Men and women perceive costs and benefits of GM differently, although women who have planted GM varieties tend to agree more with their male counterparts Both male and female farmers identified the lack of adequate and timely information about GM as a disadvantage Lack of knowledge about the technology is more prevalent among female non-adopters than male non-adopters
For female farmers the fact that GM is a labor saving technology seems to be the most beneficial Absence of gender considerations aspect of the technologies Differences in how male and female farmers use additional income and time saved that the technology can generate
– Most limiting one appear to be time. Women are constrained by their domestic workload and responsibilities – Limited access to agronomic and technology information, even compared to their male counterparts – Limited or no access or even no knowledge of the technology that can potentially benefit them.
• • • • •
Potential areas for future research
Understand the determinants of women versus men’s decision to grow GM crops Understand heterogeneity among male and female clients Quantify “invisible threads”: multiple tasks performed by women that are many times perceived as “invisible” or of insignificant social or cultural value Assess ”indirect “ benefits of GM: reduced drudgery Assess how women and men spend saved time and additional resources
Bt cotton in Burkina Faso, advantages
Labor-saving technologies • Reduction in insecticide application from 6 to 2 applications- Some estimates: – – – Water saved: 18 to 20 gallons of water by ha.
Time saved: Women have saved 3 trips to the well for every savedinsecticide application, for a total of 12 trips or 36 miles Health implication: Average water weight per trip ~20 kg
• • • • Women play an important role in proction Different perceptions] Not all women are the same What youmen and women do with additional resources.