Transcript Text I

An Integrated English Course
Book 4
Unit 1
Text I
Never Give In, Never, Never
Background information:
 1. About the text:
This text is a speech made by Churchill when he
visited Harrow School on Oct. 29,1941. In 1888,
Churchill entered this school, which was
founded in 1572 under a Royal Charter from
Queen Elizabeth. In 1940 he came to this school
for a short visit and he came again a year later to
hear the traditional songs of this school.
2. about the author:
Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) was a
combination of soldier, writer, artist, and
statesman, renowned for his courage,
imagination, oratory and intellect. In world war
II he served as Prime Minister of UK from 1940
to 1945 and played a leading role in the
resistance against German domination of
This text is an inspiring speech made by
Winston Churchill, when he visited Harrow
School. The whole speech can be divided into
three parts.
1.Part I is the opening remarks
2.Part II is the body of the speech
3.Part III is the closing remarks
Part I paragraph 1
The following questions may be asked:
What was Churchill’s intention of singing
some of their songs?
Why did Churchill use ill-favoured words such
as ups and downs and misfortunes when talking
about the menace of the enemy?
What lesson had they learnt?
Why did Churchill say the mood was different?
Part II paragraph 2-5
Questions to be considered:
What did Churchill mean by saying “we must
learn to be equally good at what is short and
sharp and what is long and tough”?
Why did Churchill quote Kipling as saying “
Part III paragraph 6-8
The following question could be asked:
1. Why did Churchill replace the word “darker”
with “sterner”?
Language Work
Ups and downs : a mixture of good things and
bad things
The organization has experienced its ups and
downs since it was founded in 1999.
Sitting beside the window, he recalled the ups
and downs of his parenthood.
Position: situation at a particular time
It is time those companies revealed more about
their financial position.
Their soccer team is going to be in a very
difficult position if nothing particular shows up.
What is short and sharp and what is long and
tough: difficulties and hardships of any kind,
imminent or distant, temporary or long-lasting.
Noble chance of war: impressive opportunities
of war
Throwing our minds back to our meeting here
10 months ago: recollecting our meeting at
Harrow School 10 months ago.
Please throw your mind back to 1945, when people
all over the world were engaged in a great
and cruel war against the Fascists.
Convictions of honour and good sense: strong beliefs
in honour and good judgement of duty and justice
Very different is the mood today: how other nations
view Britain and how the Britain people think and feel
about the war is quite different today from ten months
Our country stood in the gap: our country shouldered
the responsibility in isolation.
At the critical moment of world economic recession, a
powerful government is needed to stand in the gap.
Structural Analysis
Part I is the opening remarks in which Churchill
summarized the great events that had happened in the
past ten months and the purpose of his second visit to
Harrow School.
Part II is the body of the speech in which he analyzed
the world situation and how other nations looked at
Britain and then called on the people not to give in.
Part III is the closing remarks in which he told the
audience that he wanted to change a word in the song
and explained why he wanted to do so.
Rhetorical Features
The following antonyms are used in the speech:
ups/downs, short/long, triumph/disaster,
darker days/great days.
some of these antonyms are used to describe
the terrible nature of the war, some of them are
used to express the determination of the British
people to fight on for the final victory, and some
are used to encourage the audience not to lose
Text II Winston Churchill
Reference for questions
Churchill stepped onto the world stage at the
outbreak of World War I in the capacity of the
First Lord of the Admiralty of Great Britain.
Because he knew very well that his country
alone was not demographically strong enough
to win the victory of the war, and the
intervention of the USA would bring the war
to its end much sooner.
3. In order to get the USA involved in the war, he
established a personal relationship with
Roosevelt, and he was optimistic and believed
that things would work his way. The later
development of the world situation proved that
he was right.
Unit 2
Text I
Space Invaders
Background information:
 1. About the text:
This text was originally published in New Yorker
on July 24, 1993. later in 2001 it appeared again
in The Princeton Anthology of Writing: Favorite Pieces
by the Ferries Writers at Princeton University.
 About the author: Richard Stengel is a senior
writer working for Time magazine.
3. malthusian logic: the theories of the British
economist Thomas Robert Malthus(1766-1843),
which state that population increases faster than
the means of subsistence unless war, famine, or
disease intervenes or efforts are made to limit
 4. long island: an island in southeastern New
York. The New York city boroughs of Brooklyn
and Queens are at its west end.
The writer points out that nowadays people
are more and more concerned about themselves
and want to have a larger personal space than
decades ago, and then he analyses the cause of
space invasion.
It can be divided into three parts
Part I paragraph 1-2
The following question may be asked:
How did the author describe the violation of
personal space that happened in a bank?
Part II paragraph 3-7
The following questions could be asked :
Is “personal space” a phrase of the seventies? Is it out
of date nowadays? Why or why not?
Do you agree with the author about the reasons of
space invasion given in Paragraph 4? What other
factor have caused it?
What does the author mean by saying “personal space
is mostly a public matter”?
Do space invaders respect other people’s personal
Part III paragraph 8-9
Questions to be asked:
Do you agree with the writer’s view that the
contraction of the outer, personal space is proportion
to the expansion of the inner space of modern man?
Do you think we Chinese people have comparatively
more personal space or less? Is Chinese personal
space now the same as it was decades ago?
Why does the author decide to expand his contracting
boundaries of personal space?
Language Work
snake : move in a twisting way
the train was snaking its way through the mountains.
Some tired velvet ropes : some slackened velvet ropes
inch: move very slowly and carefully
Howard inched the van forward.
Shuffle: walk by dragging one’s feet along or
without lifting them fully from the ground
He slipped on his shoes and shuffled out of the
shuffle sth. off: avoid talking or thinking about
sth. because it is not considered important
He shuffled the question off and changed the
shuffle out of sth. Try to avoid some unpleasant
task by acting dishonestly
I mistrust the way in which they shuffle out of
sustained efforts.
Ring: a quality, or an impression of having the
quality that is mentioned
Her story has a ring of truth about it.
The books he mentioned had a familiar ring
about them.
Penetrate: succeed in forcing through sth.
They penetrated into the territory where no man
had ever been before.
Wedge: force into a narrow space
Open the door wide and wedge it with a pad of
“don’t tread on me” could have been coined only
by someone with a spread: “don’t step into my
space”. This could have been said only by a
person who has a large personal space.
Personal space is psychological, not physical: it
has less to do with the space outside us than our
inner space: personal space is more a
psychological matter than a physical one.
Be proportional to: increase or decrease at the
same rate as the other thing
The output should be proportional to the input.
As a rule the suicide rates are proportional to the
size of the city.
Structural Analysis
The author looks at the causes of space invasion
in Paragraph 4. He attributes this phenomenon
to population explosion first, then to the hot
weather and the stimulation of caffeine.
 He examines the nature of space invasion and
thinks that space invasion is a public matter. It is
more psychological than physical.
Rhetorical Features
Listed below are the verbs used by the author to give a
vivid and accurate description of the behavior of the
space invaders
1) Verbs used to described the behavior of space
inch, wedge, zigzag, jostle, refuse, press, bump, etc.
2) Verbs used to describe the reaction of those whose
space is being invaded:
advanced, sidle, shuffle
Text II space and distance
Reference for questions:
no. the distance we keep from other people
depends on our interpersonal relationship.
Tell your classmates whether you prefer to sit
in the front, in the middle, or at the back of a
room. There can be different reasons for
different people to make the same choice.
In any cases we will turn off the TV before the
conversation starts.
Unit 3
Text Ⅰ Alienation and the Internet
Background information
About the author: Will Baker is an essayist in Vermont of the
United States.
mantra (Paragraph 4): Originally it is a word or sound in
Hinduism and Buddhism repeated to aid concentration in
meditation. Here it means a statement or slogan repeated
Utopia ((Paragraph 7): Originally it refers to an imaginary
island described in Sir Thomas More’s Utopia (1516) as
enjoying perfection in law, politics, etc. Here it is used for an
ideal state.
This piece of argumentative writing falls into
three parts.
The first two paras serve as an opening part.
The following four paras constitute the body of
In the final para, the writer reiterates his main
Part I paragraph 1-1
1. What is the author’s long cherished position
about the strong points of the Internet?
2. How did the author start his argumentation?
3. When and how did the fragmentation of
society begin?
Part II paragraph 3-6
1. What’s the “cruel irony” concerning the use
of the internet mentioned in para4?
 2. In para 5, why does the author narate his own
 3. why does the author discuss the question
whether the internet is a real place?
Part III paragraph 7
1. According to the author, what underlies the
trend of overusing the Internet in our society?
2. Does the author believe it is within human
capacity to reap the benefit of the Internet
without being penalized?
Language work
further: help forward
Additional training is probably the best way to further your career
these days.
The interests of an organization will never be furthered through
acts of terrorism.
alienate: cause (someone) to feel very distant from or not
welcome to someone else
She was alienated from her brother by her foolish behavior.
All these changes to the newspaper have alienated its traditional
addicted: being dependent on something and wanting
to spend as much time doing it as possible.
Some youngsters are hopelessly addicted to video games.
She’s become addicted to love stories.
skew: cause to be not straight or exact; twist
The company’s results for this year are skewed because
not all our customers have paid their bills.
Today’s election will skew the results in favour of the
northern end of country.
lament: express sadness and regret about
He lamented the death of his friend.
She lamented that she had never been to Paris.
at the expense of: at the sacrifice of
According to this study, women have made
notable gains at the expense of men.
The orchestra has more discipline now, but at
the expense of spirit.
confront: meet face to face; set face to face
He challenged his accusers to confront him
The lawyer confronted the accused man with the
forged check.
value: regard highly; esteem
We value your cooperation and would like to
expand business with you.
I value your comments on the report.
Structural Analysis
This text falls into the genre of argumentation, which is
typically composed of three parts, i.e. the opening part
or the thesis part, the argument part, and the summary
part or conclusion part.
The first two paragraphs serve as an opening part, in
which the writer presents his thesis.
The following four paragraphs constitute the body of
argumentation, where the author supports his point
with evidences and reasons.
The final paragraph is the conclusion of the text, where
the writer reiterates his main idea.
Topic sentence: However I am also troubled by the
possible unintended negative consequences.
Concluding statement: All this being said, I believe that
the key to realizing the potential of the Internet is in
achieving balance in our lives.
Rhetorical Features
The author of this text seems to believe that the
Internet has both advantages and disadvantages.
This self-contradiction is partly illustrated by the
use of antonyms such as globalization and
alienation. Some other pairs of antonyms
(including words and expressions) are used for
the same purpose.
Text Ⅱ American Online: Losing the
Battles, but Winning the War
Reference for questions
1. He imagined a world in which computers would
be connected so that they could work much faster
and everybody could use them.
2. Because it was by no means easy to get a large
number of subscribers, especially at the very
beginning. AOL had to start with this unique
marketing approach to make its product known to the
general public. As a matter of fact, it took five years
for this company to attract a million subscribers.
3. It did not expect the fast increase of
subscribers and failed to satisfy the needs of
its customers. As a result, it lost a lot of money
and consumer confidence.
4. It got a large amount of revenue from
advertising on the Internet and selling
products online.
Unit 4
Text I A View of Mountains
background information
1. about the text
This text is the epilogue from Jonathan Schell’s book The Gift of
Time: The Cause for Abolishing Nuclear weapons Now published by
Henry Holt& Co. in 1998.
2. about the author
Jonathan Schell is the author of The Village of Ben Sue and The
Fate of the Earth. He was a writer for the New Yorker from
1967 to 1987 and a columnist for Newsday from 1990 to 1996.
He teaches at Wesleyan University and the New School, and is
the Harold Willens Peace Fellow at The Nation Institute.
3. The Nagasaki is a city which is the seaport in
southwest Japan(长崎) and is one the two cities
that got nuclear bombing in the War II.
4. The Hiroshima is a city which is the seaport in
southwest Japan(广岛) and is the other city that
got nuclear bombing in the War II.
5. The Kokura refers to the city which is the
seaport in Kitakyushu(九洲),Japan(小仓).
This argumentative essay comprises three parts.
In the first part, i.e. Paragraphs 1, the writer puts forward his
thesis: a view of mountains in the background suggests the real
extent to which the city was destroyed by the atomic bombing
In the second part , the author argues that the bombing of
Nagasaki is more representative of the nuclear peril threatening
the world than that of Hiroshima and that we need to take
actions to dispel nuclear threat from the Earth.
In the last part, i.e. Paragraph 4, he restates his main idea, i.e. we
should not just worry about the nuclear peril but take the actions
to eliminate it to create a safer world.
Part I paragraph 1
In paragraph 1 the writer describes what Yamahata’s
pictures display: the effects of a nuclear weapon on
human beings. And then he repents the main point of
his argument: the true measure lies not in the wreckage
but in the gone city, and this is where the significance
of a view of mountains in the background of one of
the pictures lies.
1. why does the author think that Yamahata’s pictures
compose the fullest record of nuclear destruction in
2. Why were the bodies often branded with the patterns
of their clothes?
3. why does author particularly mention “ a view of
mountains” in one of the pictures?
Part I paragraph 2-3
The following questions can be considered:
1. Why is the meaning of Yamahata’s picture
2. Why has Nagasaki always been in the shadow
of Hiroshima?
3. Do you agree with the author when he says the
bombing of Nagasaki is the fitter symbol of the
nuclear peril? Why or why not?
4. What should we do in addition to apprehending
the nuclear peril?
5. What do we need to meet the more important
challenge of eliminating nuclear weaponry?
Part I paragraph 4
In this part the writer calls on us to take the
responsibility of creating a safer world for new
what should we do to ensure a safer world for
the future generations?
Language work
constitute: 1) compose; form. e,.g. Nitrogen
constitutes 78% of the earth’s atmostphere.2) be
equal to ,
it is up to the teacher to decide what constitutes
satisfactory work.
 char: make or decide what constitutes
satisfactory work.
Halve the peppers and char the skins under a hot
. …their bodies are often branded with the
patterns of their clothes…: …their bodies are
often marked with the patterns of their
 Hang over: menace; overshadow
The threat of nuclear war hangs over us, we
couldn’t enjoy our vacation.
spare: refrain from harming, punishing or killing
It will spare him embarrassment if you speak to
him about it in private.
 depel: cause to vanish
In his latest novel he aims to dispel the myth that
real men don’t cry.
 …we ensure their right to exist: …we guarantee
a safe living environment for them.
Structural analysis
What makes clear the author's opinion about the
meaning of Yamahata’s pictures is the sentence
that appears at the end of the first para.
 What makes clear the author's opinion on what
should be done about the existing nuclear peril
is the sentence that appears in the middle of the
last paragraph: Performing that act is the
greatest of the responsibilities of the
generations now alive.
Rhetorical features
Apart from the two sentences that have been already mentioned,
we can find the following sentences with the “A but B” structure
in the text:
The true measure of the event lies not in what remains but in all that has
disappeared.( Para 1)
…the challenge is not just to apprehend the nuclear peril but to seize a Godgiven opportunity to dispel it once and for all…(para3)
Apart from the “A but B”sentence structure, we can also find the
“A yet B” type:
Nagasaki has always been in shadow of Hiroshima… ye t the bombing of
Nagasaki is in certain respects the fitter symbol of the nuclear danger that
still hangs over us. (para2)
Yamahata’s pictures afford a glimpse of the end of the world. Yet in our
And we can find a sentence that organizes information in a
similar way without the use of the conjunction but or yet:
Arriving a half-century late, they are still news. (para2)
By admitting something is correct first and then saying
something else is even more correct, or admitting something is
urgent first and then saying something else is more urgent with
the help or the above-mentioned sentence structures, the author
succeeds in making his sentences well balanced and his
argumentation forceful and convincing.
Text II
Statement of the 2003 Session of United
Nations Disarmament Commission
Question refence for discussion
1. it is uncertain and unpredictable because military
confrontation caused by disputes over territory,
resource, religion and interest continues and nontraditional security threats characterized by terrorism
and proliferation of weapons of mass destruction have
become more salient.
2. The speaker proposes nine measures for
nuclear disarmament. . Refer to para9-17.
3. In para22-25, the speaker talks about the
concrete and practical measures taken by China
in recent years to build up confidence between
China and its neighboring countries.
4. The multilateral approach is necessary because
more than one country possess nuclear weapons
and these weapons cannot be reduced and
destroyed without willing cooperation between
the nuclear states, especially the nuclear powers
like the United States.
Unit 5
Text I
The Tapestry of Friendship
Background information:
 1. About the text:
This text is taken from Close to Home, which was
published by The Boston Globe Company /
Washington Post Writers Group in 1979.
2. about the author:
Ellen Goodman, is a Boston Globe Online
columnist and a stylish writer with a humanizing
touch on any issue, public or personal. She is
widely acclaimed as a voice of sanity, and
readers depend on her to help them make sense
of their changing lives and relationships.
This text distinguishes two kinds of friendship:
that between men and that between women. It
can be divided into four parts.
Part I paragraph 1-2
In this part the author reveals what kind of
film the woman had just seen and what
attitude she had to it.
What kind of film did the woman see?
What did she think of it?
Part II paragraph 3-6
This part describes the woman’s observation
of the shift of focus of the cinema and
advances the argument for the distinction
between the two types of friendship: that
between men and that between women.
Why does the author list the movies the
woman had seen?
What led the woman to think that the cinema
has drastically shifted its focus?
What was the shift?
Do you agree on the point of the distinction
between the two types of friendship? Give
your own reasons.
Part III paragraph 7-18
This part discusses in detail the distinctions between
the Male Buddiness and the Female Friendship.
Generally speaking, the former is action-oriented while
the latter is emotion-oriented, i. e., the Male Buddiness
is based on the need for co-operation in the activities
that men are engaged in or in the adverse situations
they are confronted with. In contrast, the Female
Friendship borders on love, the need for mutual
emotional support.
What’s the fundamental difference between
buddies and friends?
What are the conditions of men becoming
buddies and of women becoming friends?
Why was the woman shocked by men’s
description of friendship?
Part IV paragraph 19
This part is the Conclusion of the text, which
restates the distinction between the two types of
friendship. The teacher can ask the students to
tell in what ways buddies and friends differ.
Buddies are those you can do things together
with in your lifetime, but friends are those with
whom you can share roses and thorns in your
Language Work
It was, in many ways, a slight movie. : In many aspects it
was a simple, ordinary movie.
 big-budget chase scene: a car-chase scene that costs a
lot of money
 cosmic:
1) very great
This earthquake was a disaster of cosmic scale.
2) relating to the universe
The other great cosmic reality is time
Slowly, it panned across the tapestry of friendship: Step
by step it gave an all-sided view of the complex
structure of friendship…
across millions of miles of celluloid .: in large numbers
of movies
Cull: choose from various sources
Here are a few facts and figures I’ve culled from the
week’s papers.
It’s a collection of fascinating stories culled from a
lifetime of experience.
only men… inherited a primal capacity for friendship:
only when… were born with the instinctive capacity
of making friends.
 inherit:
1) receive (money, a house etc.) from someone after
they have died
When I took on the job of manager, I inherited certain
financial problems.
2) be born with (a physical or mental quality that a
parent, grandparent or other relative has)
Rosie inherited her red hair from her mother.
The child has an inherited disease which attacks the
immune system.
“through the wars: together — corporate or
athletic or military: through the commercial,
athletic or military strives together.
They had to soldier together: had to struggle
The only relationship that gave meaning to the
claustrophobic life of George Babbitt had been
with Paul Riesling.
What made the claustrophobic life of George
Babbitt meaningful had been his relationship
with Paul Riesling; without his relationship with
Paul Riesling George Babbitt would have found
his claustrophobic life meaningless.
Structural Analysis
In the text the author discusses the differences between a buddy
and a friend in a forceful way. We can summarize the author’s
viewpoint with the following sentence: A buddy is a fine lifecompanion but a friend is that part the race with which you can be human.
The more specific differences between a buddy and a friend are:
1. Buddies bonded, but friends loved.
2. Buddies faced adversity together, but friends faced each other.
3. Buddies seemed to “do” things together; friends simply “were”
Rhetorical Features
To show the differences between buddiness and
friendship effectively, the author of the text
coordinates sentences in various ways.
Sometimes he uses conjunctions such as but, yet
and while. And sometimes he simply puts two
clauses together without using any conjunction
at all.
For example:
1) Buddies bonded, but friends loved.
2) Buddies faced adversity together, but friends
faced each other.
3) Men affect each other in the reflection of
noble or friendly acts, whilst women ask fewer
proofs and more signs and expressions of
4) Men often keep their buddies in these
categories while women keep a special category
for friends.
Text II My Daughter, My Friend
Reference for questions
Through note writing the daughter told her mother
how she felt and what growing pains she had
experienced as an adolescent and the mother told her
daughter how she felt as a middle aged woman.
Mom, your letter make me feel great no matter what kind of
mood I’m in. sometimes they even make me cry because they
touch me so deeply. I’m really glad we have the kind of
relationship that we do, even though we have our arguments.
I love you, Mom!
Here are a couple of hints for your discussion:
1) what is the usual way of communication
between members of your family?
2) Do you think your family climate is
3) Do you think note writing between family
members living under the same roof can lead
to some undesirable consequence?
Unit 6
Text I
A French Fourth
Background information:
Globalization make people can touch their own
cultures more easily and children abroad can
learn the history of their motherland from
school. The culture divide between different
countries is less jarring. However, on the other
hand, people are less than fully immersed in a
truly foreign world.
This text talks about the influence of a foreign
culture on expatriated families. It can be divided
into three parts. In part I, the author starts with
a way of celebrating his home country’s
National Day; In part II he makes a contrastive
analysis of the costs and benefits of the
expatriated people; In part III, he talks about the
effect of globalization.
Part I paragraph 1-3
The following question may be asked:
Why does the author hang the American flag
from his fourth-floor balcony in Paris?
The author has kept the old flag for a long
time. Why didn’t he get a new one?
Why do the author and his family go back
home for the summer?
Part II paragraph 4-9
The following questions could be asked :
What are the costs and benefits of raising
children in a foreign culture?
What is the author’s purpose of telling the
story of his own children in Paragraph 4 and 5?
How is the story related to his argument?
Did the author achieve the purpose of his
summer travel in the U.S.?
Part III paragraph 10-12
Questions to be asked:
Why does the author recall his own experience
as a child in Paragraph 10?
What are the differences between the author
and his children as expatriates at about the
same time in their lives? What causes the
Why does the author say the development is
Language Work
Fold away :
1) make something into a smaller, neater shape
by folding it, usually several times
These camping chairs can be folded away and put
in the trunk.
The piece of paper was folded away carefully and
trucked into her purse.
2) the date and the occasion that prompt its
The event of the thirteen sates of British
colonies declaring their independence on July 4,
1776 brought about the appearance of this flag.
3) suppress such outward signs of their heritage:
do not give manifestations of their traditional
culture handed down from their ancestors.
Refuel: Its original meaning is to fill with more
fuel for a vehicle but here it means to fill
someone’s mind with more knowledge of their
native culture.
Oil tankers will accompany the containers for
trans-ocean refuelling.
In a society of intense competition, people have
to refuel every year to catch up with the rapid
renewal of knowledge.
The American in me: the feeling of being
American which is deeply rooted in my mind.
Frame of reference: a particular set of beliefs,
ideas, or observations on which one bases his
Please see to it that you are dealing with
someone with a different frame of reference.
The observer interprets what he sees in terms of
his own cultural frame of reference.
Square dancing: a traditional American dance in
which sets of four couples dance together in a
square formation
 Surveys with fringe on top: old –fashioned
horse-drawn carriages with fancy decorations on
A much less jarring cultural divide : a much less
unsuitable cultural divergence The output.
 Re-entry… : is likely to be smoother. It seems to
be easier for the children to restart the
acquisition of their native culture
Structural Analysis
In this text there are both general and specific
discussions about how to keep the cultural
identity of the expatriated people.
 The author of this text follows a “specificgeneral” pattern in his discussion.
Rhetorical Features
Generally speaking, the author of this text has
adopted a plain language style
concessive words and expressions like but are
frequently used.
Text II Stuck in the Middle
Reference for questions:
He was faced with racial discrimination. The
American law prohibited him from owning any
property or becoming a naturalized citizen, to
name only a few examples.
No. Although she inherited some rituals from
her Chinese ancestors such as being thrifty and
polite, she is also influenced by the Caucasian
culture and the American culture.
It is good for people like her because it is easier for
them to merge themselves with the local people and
get equal opportunities in education, employment and
other things.
It depends on how you define a Chinese. If we look
at the blood relationship, no matter whether they are
1/2,1/4,1/8, or 1/32 Chinese, they are
unquestionably Chinese in origin. But they need to
have much more to be a Chinese in a broader sense.
Language is one of the many things they must
possess. Without being able to speak or read the
Chinese language, it is simply impossible for them to
know, to feel or t sense what a Chinese really is or
what the Chinese culture really means.
Unit 7
Text I
The Selling of the President
Background information:
 1. PR: public relations
 2. IQ: an abbreviation of Intelligence Quotient.
A General Intelligence Quotive Score (IQ score)
is a statistically derived number which indicates
relative and comparative abilities that can be
used to obtain academic skills and knowledge.
The Associated Press: 美联社
 Watergate: some republicans broke into the
Democratic Party’s National Committee offices
in this building but were discovered and arrested.
This political scandal led to Nixon’s resignation
in 1974. the word Watergate has become
synonymous with corruption and scandal.
This text can be divided into three parts.
1.Part I is the thesis of the author
2.Part II is the discussion of the impact of
television on American presidential election
3.Part III is the conclusion drawn by the author
Part I paragraph 1
The following question may be asked:
Why does the campaign strategist say “I can
elect any person to office if he has $ 60,000,
an IQ of at least 120, and can keep his mouth
Part II paragraph 2-11
Questions to be considered: :
What is the most influential medium in an
election campaign and why? Does it work in all
How does the author start his argumentation?
What is the function of the two questions in
Paragraph 4?
Why does the author mention the four
presidents in Paragraph 5?
Why does the author say “since the 1960
presidential debates we have elected people,
not platforms”?
What is the difference between print
information and television information?
What is the main idea of Paragraph 8?
What is the author’s opinion on the power of
Part III paragraph 12
The following question could be asked:
What does the author mean by “today’s
burning issue is tomorrow’s historical
Language Work
Generate: cause to arise or come about
The Employment Minister said the reforms
would generate new jobs.
John is recalling the excitement generated by the
visit to the pyramids in Egypt.
Quote: repeat what is said or written by
The premier was quoted as saying that he would
resist all attempts to disintegrated his nation.
Heavy teaching loads are often quoted as a bad
influence on research.
Versus: against
Brazil versus Argentina is turning out to be a
surprisingly well-matched competition.
Stage: organize and participate in
At the end of this year, the government staged a
huge military parade.
The workers have staged a number of strikes in
protest at the republic’s declaration of
Stand for: support
the party is trying to give the public the
impression that it alone stands for democracy.
People are not taken in by advertising hyperbole
and imagery: people are not deceived by
advertising exaggeration and descriptions of the
Develop a sense of what kind of person we are
electing to the nation’s highest office: become
aware of what kind of person we are choosing
as our new president.
Structural Analysis
In recent years that publicity has been
supplanted by heavy spot buying on electronic
media.( para. 1)
 The most talked-about medium in American
politics is television. (para. 2)
 Television assords us that opportunity in a way
no other medium can. (para.12)
Rhetorical Features
Positive examples:
Kennedy, Nixon, Carter, Reagan
the purpose is to show the effectiveness of
television in getting more publicity for
presidential candidates.
 Negative examples:
Adlai Stevenson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard
the purpose is to prove the importance of the
candidates’ public image on TV.
Text II What Makes a Leader
Reference for questions
He must have bigger-than-life, commanding
features for people to remember. He must
appear on the scene at a moment when people
are looking for leadership. He must be able to
offer a solution everybody can understand and
remember and able to do something other
people can’t. H must know how to use power.
Enjoy strong health. Have a strong will in time
of difficulties. Charisma.
Honest. Active. Creative. High scores in
studies. Willing to work for his classmates.
Know how to organize class activities.
You can certainly add more.
Unit 8
Text I
The Monster
Background information:
1. About the text:
This text first appeared as a radio talk, entitled
A Monster. Later it was published with the title
Of Men and Music in the United States in 1937.
2. about the author:
Deems Taylor, American musician and critic
3. Richard Wagner: German composer, born in
Leipzig on 22 May 1813 and died in Venice on
13 February 1883. he did more than any other
composer to change music, and indeed to
change the art and thinking about it. His works
are hated as much as they are worshipped, but
no one denies their greatness.
This text can be divided into three parts.
1.Part I describe a man who seems to have rolled all kinds
of demerits into one, a real monster.
2.Part II clarifies who this monster really is, i.e. a famous
musician by the name of Richard Wagner.
3.Part III justify all the peculiar behaviors of Richard
Wagner. He, as “one of the world’s greatest
dramatists … a great thinker … one of the most
stupendous musical geniuses”, has every reason to be a
Part I paragraph 1-9
The following questions may be asked:
Does the man’s appearance, described in the
first paragraph, give one any impression of
What are the further evidences of the
monster’s conceit?
What kinds of grammatical devices are used to
emphasize the extreme extent of his pecultiar
What kind of versatile man is he?
How does the writer describe him as an
emotional person?
How was he financially supported? Did he
earn himself a good living with his great
What is his attitude toward love?
Why do you think Wagner made so many
Part II paragraph 10
The following questions could be asked :
Why do you think the writer postpones the
presentation of the monster’s name till the
10th paragraph?
Has your attitude towards this monster
changed a little when you finally find out who
this monster is?
Part III paragraph 11-13
questions to be asked:
How does the writer justify every piece of
evidence of the monster, which he has
presented previously?
What is the writer’s real intention of writing
this article?
What is your final conclusion about Richard
Language Work
And he had delusions of grandeur: and he had a
false belief that he was a man of importance.
delusion: a false belief or opinion.
That sick man is under the delusion that he is
Volubility: the characteristic of always being
ready to produce a continuous flow of words, or
being talkative
Voluble: characterized by a ready and
continuous flow of words; fluent; talkative
Ted’s a voluble speaker at meetings; he doesn’t
give much chance to others to say anything.
For the sake of
For the good or advantage of
For the purpose of
Talk wildly as if mad
Put into the stated condition by talking wildly
Darkly: in a vaguely threatening or menacing
He spoke darkly of trouble to come
hint darkly hidden dangers
Testimony: a formal statement that sth. is true,
as made by a witness in a court of law.
Between the lines: hidden meanings
some kinds of poetry make you read between the
And the curious thing about this record is that it
doesn’t matter in the least: although the
monster’s peculiar personality and behavior
described previously are all facts on record,
people just care nothing about them at all.
Downright: thoroughly
It makes me downright angry to see food
thrown away.
Is it any wonder he had no time to be a man? It
is reasonable for him to act like a monster in
other respects when he was wholly engaged in
composing music.
Structural Analysis
In the first 10 paras, we can find the following
words and expressions used by the author to
describe Richard Wagner as a monster of
delusions of grandeur/ monster of conceit/
believed himself to be one of the greatest
dramatist/one of the greatest thinkers
In the remaining paras, we can find the
following words and expressions used to
describe him as a great genius:
right all the time/ one of the world’s greatest
dramatists/ a great thinker/ one of the most
stupendous musical geniuses
Rhetorical Features
The repetitious use of the third person pronoun
he creates suspense in the reader’s mind. This is
one of the effective ways to hold the reader’s
attention and make him move on. To use the
terminology of functional linguistics and
discourse analysis, this use of he is cataphoric in
nature. The anaphoric use of he can be found in
sentences such as “I have a friend and he is
working in New York”, in which he refers back
to “my friend”.
Text II Simple Habits, Deep
Reference for questions
He is simple in his habits. He does not pay much
attention to his personal appearance. His clothes are
baggy and he wears bedroom slippers when walking
on the streets.
Basically the theory proposed, among other things,
that the greatest speed possible is the speed of light;
that the rate of a clock moving through space will
decrease as its speed increases; and the energy and
mass are equal and interchangeable.
To illustrate his profound idea, Einstein
compares it to the ways one feels when he is
sitting with a nice girl and when he is sitting on
a hot stove.
Wagner was arrogant, aggressive, and selfcentered whereas Einstein was modest,
amiable and easy-going. Wagner was monster
but Einstein was absolutely a gentleman.
Unit 9
 Learning Objectives
 After learning this unit, you are supposed to
 grasp the author’s purpose of writing and get familiar with the
structure of Text 1 by an intensive reading.
 paraphrase all the difficult sentences in Text 1.
 master all the news words or sentence patterns and be able to
use them freely in oral or written work.
 be aware that the doctor-patient conflict is a common
phenomenon in different cultures and try to investigate that in
China and try to offer some suggestions on how to solve this
Text 1 The Discus Thrower
What do you think this text is about after you
know its title?
How do you think a dying man will most
probably behave?
What attitude do you think that we should take
towards financial or physical problems?
This passage can be divided into three parts.
Part One (Paragraph 1): Spying on Patients—a Habit of Mine
This part serves as an introduction to the background of the
story. The narrator tells about one of his unique habits of
“spying on” the patient and justifies himself for the sake of
better medical treatment.
Part Two (Paragraphs 2-13): Encounters with
a Particular Patient
This part talks about the narrator’s contact with the
“discuss thrower”. The miserable condition of the
patient is compared to a bonsai. The reason for his
“discuss throwing” is that his plight throws him into
despair and he hopes for nothing, only waiting for
Part Three (Paragraphs 14-15): The Death
of the Patient
This part tells about how the man is found dead
and the doctor discovered the secret that the man
starved himself to death as is suggested by the
doctor’s attention to the repeatedly washed place
where the scrambled eggs dropped to the floor.
Language Work
…he might the more fully assemble evidence?
…he might gather evidence more fully than without spying?
The structure “the more fully” is the elliptical form of “all
the more fully”. In English the structure “all/ so much/ none +
the + the comparative degree of adjectives or adverbs” is
used without “than…”following it to express emphasis.
Sometimes all can be omitted.
e.g. 1) She was waiting for the spring. She felt the
younger for it.
2) I walked around for two hours yesterday,
and the doctor said I was none the worse for it.
3) I know there’s danger ahead, but I am all
the more set on driving forward.
furtive: attempting to avoid notice or attention;
e.g. 1) I saw him cast a furtive glance at the
woman at the table to his right.
2) There was something furtive about his
behavior and I immediately felt suspicious.
It is rusted, rather, in the last stage of
containing the vile repose within.
Rather, his skin gets dark brown because he was
approaching the last stage of his life, that is, he
was dying. Here “vile repose” is a metaphor, and it
means “death”.
And the blue eyes are frosted, looking inward
like the windows of a snowbound cottage.
And (under scrutiny) the blue eyes are not clear but
covered with a gray frost-like layer, without looking
outside at the external world like the windows of a
snow-surrounded cottage.
…he cups his right thigh in both hands.
…he holds his right thigh with his hands curved
like a dish.
cup: support or hold something with the hands
that are curved like a dish
e.g. 1) He cupped his chin in the palm of his hand.
2) David knelt, cupped his hands and splashed
river water onto his face.
swing: move something from one side to the
e.g. 1) A large pendulum swung back and forth
inside the big clock.
2) The truck driver swung himself up into
the driver’s seat.
probe: physically explore or examine (something)
with the hands or an instrument; investigate
e.g. 1) They probed in/into the mud with a special
drill, looking for a shipwreck.
2) Detectives questioned him for hours, probing
for any inconsistencies in his story.
heft: lift or hold (something) in order to test its weight
e.g. I hefted a suitcase.
I see that we are to be accomplices.
I see that I have to help the aide feed the patient.
make one’s rounds: make one’s usual visits, esp. of
e.g. The production manage makes his rounds to check
whether everything goes well.
dignified: having or showing a composed or
serious manner that is worthy of respect
e.g. 1)He has maintained a dignified silence about
the rumours.
2) The defeated candidate in the election
gave a dignified speech in which he congratulated
his rival.
sweep: glide swiftly; speed along
e.g. 1) A 1970s fashion revival is sweeping Europe.
2) Her gaze swept across the assembled
3) The National Party swept into power with
a majority of almost 200.
Who is more responsible and considerate, the
doctor or the medical aide? Find some clues in
the text to support your opinion.
Since doctor-patient conflict is unavoidable, can
you give some suggestions to improve this
Main Ideas of Text 2
Sian Evens was caught in a fire and suffered
third-degree burns. Her father spared no effort
to help her regain consciousness during his
visits in the hospital. As well as Sian’s great
efforts, her father’s deep love and great patience
contributed immensely to her physical and
mental recovery.
Unit 10
Learning Objectives
By the end of this unit, you are required to
grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make
clear the structure of the whole passage by an
intensive reading of Text 1.
understand all the difficult sentences in Text 1 and
be able to paraphrase them.
get a list of new words and structures and try to use
them freely in conversation and writing.
get familiar with the style of Text 1:
try to get a general understanding of the famous
literary figures mentioned in Text 1.
Text 1 How I Found My Voice
Have you ever spoken to a large audience?
How did you feel?
Do you think voice is important to personal
Suppose a friend of yours, who has
accidentally broken his leg, is going to have an
operation in a few days and now he is feeling
nervous. Say something to calm him down
and give him some encouragement.
This autobiographical narration
comprises three parts.
Part One (Paragraphs 1-2): The writer
presents a striking contrast between his
successful career as an actor and television
announcer and his severe stutter in his early
Part Two (Paragraphs 3-22):This part
mainly describes the author’s stuttering
problem when he was a child and the
process of how Prof. Crouch helped the
boy tackle the problem by way of the forced
public speaking.
Part Three (Paragraphs 23-29) : The
concluding part shows various honors and
successes the writer has obtained, which
further emphasizes the great effect the
teacher has brought about on the writer’s
career as well as his whole life.
Language Work
the voice-over announcer: an announcer
who makes a commentary or gives an
explanation which is heard as part of a film
or television program, but he himself is not
actually seen.
the New Testament: the second part of the
Bible, concerned with the teachings of Christ
and his earliest followers
the Old Testament: the first part of the
Bible, telling the history of the Jews and their
I always sat down, my face burning with shame.
I always sat down, and blushed because I felt
More examples of absolute structure:
A number of officials followed the emperor, some to
hold his robe, others to adjust his girdle, and so on.
(infinitive clause)
His voice drowned by the noise, the speaker
stopped in the middle of his lecture.(-ed participle
He went off, gun in hand. (prepositional phrase)
The floor wet and slippery, we stayed outside.
(adjective phrase)
It was traumatic moving from the warm,
easy ways of catfish country to the harsh
climate of the north, where people
seemed so different.
We moved from the familiar and pleasant
country to the north where I felt cold both in
body and in heart. That was really an
upsetting experience in my life.
in a nondenominational fellowship: in a
close relationship without caring about the
different religions
Granddad’s Irish heritage came out in his
love for language; …
Granddad had a love for language, which
might have been inherited from his Irish
ancestors; …
come close to: become almost the same as
e.g. The language learner tries to make his
speech come close to perfection.
round up: gather together animals or people,
often when they do not want to be gathered
e.g. The teacher rounded up all the students
and led them to the classroom.
That awful feeling of voice being trapped got
worse as I grew older.
As I grew older, I became more self-conscious of
my stuttering.
savor: enjoy and appreciate something like food, or
drink, or an experience, as much as one can
e.g. 1) I savored every mouthful of breakfast,
reluctant to let it end.
2) He savored the words as he said it.
labor: work with difficulty, for example
because one is not strong enough or clever
e.g. 1) He was laboring under the strain of a
worsening political crisis.
2) His classmates were laboring with
elementary algebra.
…I started, anger flooding me…
…I started, overwhelmed with anger…
…because the lyrics’ rhythmic pattern flows by
…most stutterers can sing along with the rhythm
pattern which just flows by itself.
He never pushed anything at me again; he just
wanted all his students to wake up.
From then on he never gave me pressure, and what
he tried to do was to help students realize and tap
their potential.
I…supported myself between roles by
sweeping floors of off-Broadway stages.
Before acting any new role, I …supported
myself by sweeping the floors of offBroadway stages.
“Can I fly you in from Michigan to see it?”
“Can I offer you a flight to Michigan to see
my acting?”
…he was still living in a world vibrant with all
of the beautiful treasures had stored.
…he had stored many poems by memorizing them
so he could enjoy his life with the rhythms of
poetry even after he had lost his sight.
resurrect: cause something to live again after it
has disappeared
e.g. A furious argument ensued in which both
sides resurrected all their old differences.
What is the text mainly concerned with?
What do you learn from the author of
this text?
Main Ideas of Text 2
Jack Kibly’s marvelous achievements on inventing
microchips and thus launching a technological
revolution led him to winning the Nobel Prize in
physics, although he is not a physicist and never
had much formal physics training in his lifetime.
He has never accumulated much money out of his
invention, but this has not bothered him. He always
tries to be a good problem-solver in his field.
Unit 11
Learning Objectives
By the end of this unit, students are supposed to
make clear the structure of the whole passage and grasp the
author’s purpose of writing through an intensive reading of
Text 1.
master all the new words and sentence structures and employ
them in conversation and writing.
be able to paraphrase all the topic sentences in Text 1.
know about the Boy Scout and its ranks.
learn from the passage some experience in face of a great
danger in the wilds.
Text 1 Mountain Lion’s Attack
Can you remember any situation in your life
where you were terrified?
What will you do if you run across a fierce
wild animal in the woods?
This narrative article comprises three
Part One (Paragraph 1): In this part, the writer
describes the motivation of his taking a job offer.
Part Two (Paragraphs 2-20): In this part, the writer
talks about his personal experience as a camp
counselor. One little camper was caught by a
ferocious mountain lion. He fought hard to drive it
away and finally succeeded in saving the boy.
Part Three (Paragraph 21): In this part, the
writer concludes his narration with his motto: Be
prepared to listen to divine directions.
Language Work
Boy Scout: member of the Scout Association, an
organization which aims to teach boys self-reliance,
discipline and public service through outdoor activities.
Life Scout: one of the ranks of the Boy Scout. The
ranks of the Boy Scout start out as a Scout, which is
followed by Tenderfoot. After that is Second Class,
which precedes First Class. The next rank is Star. After
that one achieves Life, which leads up to the highest
rank, Eagle. One has to earn 11 merit badges before he
can be a Life Scout.
well on my way to making eagle: with much
hope of becoming a senior scout
jumped at the chance: eagerly accepted or
took advantage of the chance
e.g.1) Susan jumped at the chance of going abroad.
2) The guests all jumped at the invitation
because it is rare for the host to arrange such a
glue: fasten or join with glue
e.g. 1) Her ear has been glued to the key-hole.
2) The approaching Session of Parliament will
open millions of pairs of eyes, which have been glued up
by false alarms for the last twenty-five years.
roam: wander aimlessly or unsystematically
e.g. 1) A mighty horde of savages roamed the continent
in search of food.
2) In the summer I often roam about the fields all
yell: utter a loud strident cry, especially from some
strong and sudden emotion, as rage, horror, or agony
e.g. 1) Vicki leaped to her feet and started yelling at the
audience about the death penalty.
2) With its driver yelling “I can’t stop, I can’t stop”, a
car barreled onto an elementary school playground.
Could I stand my ground?
Could I stick to my principle?
e.g. The government was strong enough to stand its
ground on foreign affairs.
plod up: make one’s way up laboriously
e.g. We plodded along in profound silence in case that we
would arouse the sleeping dwellers
…something kept bugging me.
…I was continuously annoyed by something.
shrug off: dismiss or reject in an offhand manner; be
unaffected by
e.g. 1) The stock market has shrugged off the
collapse of Roc Company.
2) You can’t just shrug off things like this!
insistent: persistent with urgency
e.g. The natives were very insistent that I should try and
shoot an animal otherwise I would not be a real hunter.
At the real, I found myself with the least ones.
I joined the smallest or youngest campers at the end of
the group.
We clambered on…
We climbed on along the mountain trail with
an Indian trail sign: a sign marking the direction of
paths in a forest by and for Indian tribesmen
…the counselors froze.
…the counselors became motionless.
yelling at the top of my lungs: shouting at the utmost
power of my voice
e.g. The desperate shepherd was yelling at the top of his
lungs for help, but unfortunately no one came.
Fear for the boy wiped out my own terror…
My own terror was driven away completely by the fear
for the boy’s safety…
e.g. They accused Nazi Regime of an effort to wipe out
the identities of Jews by destroying their public enemies.
in a fit of rage: very angry
e.g. He tore the book into pieces in a fit of rage, because
he was not interested in it at all.
gave me credit for: praised me for
e.g. He was given credit for his extraordinary devotion
only after he died.
carrying the right gear: equipping oneself with the
right instruments
What do you learn from the author?
Do you think that there is really someone who
can warn the writer of the danger ahead?
Main Ideas of Text 2
Derek has many close calls during his 19 years of life. One
night in August when he camped in Glorieta, he and his
girlfriend Kendra were attacked by a ferocious bear. At first
they tried to avoid the danger by playing dead, but this did
not stop the bear from attacking them. When they were
attacked for a second time, brave Derek did everything he
could to fight the animal and protect his girlfriend. Finally
the bear backed off, and they survived.
Unit 12
Learning Objectives
After learning this unit, you are required to
have a good understanding of the author’s purpose of
writing and appreciate the whole passage through an
intensive reading of Text 1.
comprehend the difficult sentences in Text 1 and be able
to paraphrase them.
master the new words and structures and try to employ
them freely.
be aware of how Christmas celebrated by westerners.
learn a new rhetorical device—oxymoron and be able to
identify it in different texts.
Text 1 Christmas Lost and Found
What is the most important festival in China?
What does the title of this text suggest to you?
The text can be divided into three parts.
Part One (Paragraphs 1-5): This part introduces
the writer’s dream of having a big family vibrating
with energy, life and love, especially at Christmas.
And her dream came true with the arrival of an
adopted son, Christmas Boy, as well as two
biological children.
Part Two (Paragraphs 6-8): This part tells
readers that Christmas Boy was killed in a car
accident on his 26th Christmas after he
decorated his parents’ tree as usual, which gave a
heavy blow to his parents. Then they submerged
in the sorrow of losing their son as well as
Christmas for 17 years.
Part Three (Paragraphs 9-24): This part tells us
that 17 years later, the parents gradually realized
that they had found the joy of a noisy Christmas
of a big family again and that the love harbored
in everyone’s heart will unite people, biologically
connected or not, into a family and Christmas is
just a chance for people to share love with each
Language Work
reckon on: expect; dependent on
e.g. 1) We are reckoning on a large profit.
2) Can I reckon on you to help?
Undaunted, we applied for adoption and, within a year, he
Not discouraged by our infertility, we requested to adopt a child.
Within a year, we succeeded in adopting one.
in rapid succession: quickly and continuously
e.g. His words came out in rapid succession.
…compared with my quiet childhood, that made an
entirely satisfactory crowd.
…with three children, my family was filled with a big crowd,
which, quite different from my quiet childhood, completely
satisfied my dream of having a big family.
satisfactory: good enough to be pleasing, or for a purpose,
rule, standard
e.g. a satisfactory excuse for his absence
cf. satisfaction: contentment ; pleasure; fulfillment of a need,
desire, etc.
e.g. He took great satisfaction from playing the piano well.
rush the season: make people prepare for Christmas
hastily long before Christmas really comes
He pressed us into singing carols, our froglike
voices contrasting with his musical gift of perfect
He forced all of us to sing carols, even though our
voices, compared with his perfect voice with musical
gift, were too harsh and husky to sing.
Each holiday he stirred us up, leading us through a
round of merry chaos.
Each holiday, he tried to excite us and turned the whole
family into a cheerful disorder.
stir up: cause to move or excite
merry chaos: This is an expression of oxymoron. “Chaos”
refers to a state of complete and thorough disorder or
confusion, which is, however, modified by an adjective
incompatible to or contradictory with its original meaning.
Our friends were right about adopted children not
being the same.
Our friends were right in saying that adopted children
would usually be different from biological children.
Through his own unique heredity, his irrepressible
good cheer, his bossy wit, our Christmas Boy made
our life colorful.
With his unique ability inherited from his own parents, his
cheerful personality, as well as his wit of ordering others
to cooperate with him, he changed our life into a colorful
stop by: make a short visit to (someone’s home)
…where memories clung to every room.
…where every room would make us recall the
cling to: hold tight to; stick firmly to
e.g. She clung tightly to her few remaining
We slide into the city on the tail of a blizzard,
through streets ablaze with lights.
We drove into the city at night just after a heavy
snowstorm, in order not to be noticed by any
slide: go slowly and unnoticed; pass smoothly or
continuously; slip
e.g. 1) She slid out of the room when no one was
2) She slid over the question without answering it.
on the tail of: following closely behind
We settled into a small, boxy house, so different from
the family home where we had orchestrated our lives.
It was quiet, like the house of my childhood.
We settled down in a small house, which was so different
from our previous home where, with our Christmas Boy,
we had changed our quiet life into a cheerful one. Now the
small house reminded me of the quiet house of childhood,
which I had disliked so much.
snowcapped mountain: mountains covered with snow
pull up: come to a stop
e.g. The car pulled up outside the station.
There stood our granddaughter, and in her graygreen eyes and impudent grin I saw the reflection
of our Christmas Boy.
Our granddaughter was standing there, her gray-green
eyes as well as her rude smile reminded us of her father,
our Christmas Boy.
shape up: begin to do right
e.g. You’d better shape up, young man, or you will be
in a whirl: in a confusing rush
You sure as heck can.
You certainly can.
We had long ago given up the poignant Christmas
services, but now under pressure, we sat rigid in the
front pew, fighting back tears.
After the death of our Christmas Boy, we had not expected
to have any Christmas services any more. Now, at the
demand of our granddaughter’s family, we sat in the front
seat, but the sad memories stiffened our body and filled
our eyes and heart with tears.
In a rare emotional response, the congregation
applauded in delight.
Greatly touched by her singing, the audience gave a big
applause to her delightedly.
We had been alerted that there would be a whole mess
of people for dinner—but 35!
We had been warned that there would be a large number of
people attending dinner, but we had never expected that
there would be 35 of them.
assorted relatives: various types of relatives
sort out: separate from a mass or a group
e.g. Sort out the papers to be thrown away, and put the rest
They took us in, enfolded us in joyous camaraderie.
e.g. They received us and treated us like old friends.
take in: receive and provide lodgings for
e.g. The kind old lady offered to take in the poor homeless
enfold: surround; envelop
We sang carols in loud, off-key voices, saved only
by that amazing soprano.
We sang carols loudly, often in the wrong key, but every
time we were led to the right key by our
granddaughter’s perfect singing.
…it occurred to me that a true family is not always
one’s own flesh and blood. It is a climate of the
…I suddenly realized that a family is not always made
up by kinship and the hearts filled with love for others
would surely make up a true family.
Had it not been for our adopted son, we would not
now be surrounded by caring strangers who would
help us hear the music again.
I felt grateful to my adopted son, without whom we
would not have a chance to spend Christmas with these
caring people and hear the Christmas carols again,
which we had not had for so many years.
zoom: move or travel quickly
e.g. Jack went zooming past in his new car.
The real meaning of Christmas had been
restored to us.
I found the real meaning of Christmas again, that is,
hearts with love, which I had had when my family
was filled with energy and love with all my three
children around me, but later I had mistakenly lost
after my adopted son’s death.
A proverb goes like this: “Blood is thicker than
water.” Do you think that there is any
contradiction between this proverb and the way
the author of the text looks at human
Nowadays Christmas is celebrated in China. Does
it mean that Christianity is getting popular in
Main Ideas of Text 2
The author, whose father was a groundskeeper for
cemeteries, believed he needed an escape from the life
in his quiet and sheltered town and a new way of life.
On a particular visit home, his father asked him to lay
some of the stones on several of the markers. This
stone-leaving experience changed his attitude towards
the life there.
Unit 13
Learning Objectives
After learning this unit, you are required to
grasp the author’s purpose of writing and the structure of
Text 1.
understand the difficult sentences in Text 1 and be able to
paraphrase them.
master all the new words, expressions and sentence
patterns, and use them freely in conversation and writing.
know the importance of harmonious relationship between
man and nature, and try to suggest some effective ways to
improve present situation.
Text 1 Promise of Bluebirds
What’s your favorite bird?
Why do most Chinese dislike crows?
The passage can be divided into three parts.
Part One (Paragraphs 1-7): These seven paragraphs function
as a preclude to the story, where the author sets the wintry
landscape as the background. She asked herself the question
“…will he ever see one again?” to reveal the critical situation
of her father who treated bluebirds as angels of spring and
Part Two (Paragraphs 8-19): The author recalls
the life of her father, his philosophy of life and
his sacrifice for the family and children. Just after
he retired, he became interested in, and even
hooked by, bluebirds, a kind of brilliant creature.
Part Three (Paragraphs 20-30): In this part, the
author concentrates on the friendly relation
between her father and bluebirds, which implies
the harmonious relation between man and nature,
and illustrates the theme of this story—the
promise of bluebirds.
Language Work
await: wait for (formal use)
e.g. Very little was said as they awaited the arrival of the
distinguished guests.
hover: (of a person) wait or linger close at hand in an
uncertain manner
e.g. With no idea of what to do for his next move, Ham’s
hand hovered over the board.
…he drifted in and out of consciousness.
…he lost and regained consciousness every now and then.
let go: give up
e.g. She held the photos with the determined grip of
a small child and wouldn’t let go.
hold on to: keep one’s hand on or around
e.g. 1) His right arm was extended up beside his head,
still holding on to a coffee cup.
2) Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for many
years yet held on to his belief for the equality of his
make sacrifices for: give up something valuable or
important in order to obtain something else for other
e.g. He was willing to make any sacrifice for the
development of his motherland.
showing a fine pall of coal dust: covered with a layer
of thin coal dust
sparkled with devilment: betrayed or reflected his
playful spirit
fashion a fishing-line threader out of an old ballpoint
pen: turn an old ballpoint pen into a fishing-line threader
e.g. Through years of hard work, he fashioned a beautiful horse
out of an oak root.
Each job had its claim on your best efforts.
Each job demanded your best efforts.
His playful spirit would set us to giggling.
His humorous temperament would cause us to laugh.
…we’d been had.
…we had been tricked or deceived.
cleared forests for farmland: remove the
forests to cultivate land for farming
He was hooked.
He was fascinated as if fastened by a hook.
…Dad was confined to the downstairs.
…Dad could not climb upstairs
…the rascals showed…
…the lovely bluebirds came…
Sporting a resplendent blue head, back, and
wings and tail…
With his head, back, and wings and tail growing
attractive rich blue feathers…
She remained aloof on a distant perch.
She stood on a distant perch, seemingly uninterested in the
new nest.
Then she fought an even more vehement battle with
another female.
Then she fought an even more violent battle with another
female in response to Caruso’s love.
…the sky mirrored Caruso’s courting raiment…
…the sky was as blue as the color of Caruso’s courting
herculean efforts: extremely great efforts
What is the theme of this text?
Would you offer some suggestions to
harmonize the present relationship between
man and nature?
Main Ideas of Text 2
Kobus, the author’s husband, found a tiny lion cub and
brought it home. They tried their best to look after it as if it
were their son. When it was too big to be managed, they sent
it back to live with wild animals in a park. It gradually
accustomed itself to the life there, and finally became a real
This passage tells us that man should treat animals in a friendly way
and help them and protect them when they are in such a need. It is
necessary for man to seek a harmonious relationship with animals.
Unit 14
Learning Objectives
After learning this unit, you are required to
master all the new words and employ them in
conversation and writing.
be able to paraphrase all the topic sentences in Text 1.
be aware of the author’s purpose of writing and grasp the
main structure through an intensive reading of Text 1.
have a good understanding of the style of the text—
argumentation, most of which consists of three parts: the
thesis of the author, the evidences to support the thesis,
and the summary or conclusion of the argument.
Text 1 The Idiocy of Urban Life
What are the major differences between city life
and country life?
Where do you prefer to live, in the city or in the
country? Please give evidences to support your
This text can be divided into three
Part One (Paragraphs 1-2): In this part, the
author presents the thesis of his argument:
aggressively individualistic and atomized urban
life today goes against both the purpose of the
city and the human nature, and thus is foolish.
Part Two (Paragraphs 3-9): In this part, the author
provides evidences for the idiocy of urban life.
Para. 3-4: discussing the pretense of city dwellers when
they try to live outside the city boundaries
Para. 5-6: putting forward the point that city work is an
unreal environment
Para. 7: proving that the city dwellers live and work in an
unreal environment
Para. 8-9: showing the damage done by the office work to
the physical conditions of the workers
Part 3 (Paragraph 10): In this part, the writer
summarizes the idiocy of urban life and the
ultimate reasons for this phenomenon. On the
one hand, city dwellers try to simulate rural life,
and on the other hand, they disdain and mock
this life.
Language Work
civil: polite and formal
e.g. His manner was civil, though not particularly friendly.
cruises easily through blinking traffic lights: moves easily
through traffic lights and turn red and green alternately
cruise: (of a vehicle or its driver) travel (at an efficient speed)
e.g.1) The plane is cruising at an altitude of 35,000 feet.
2) We are planning to spend our retirement cruising on luxury
liners around the world.
during an insomniac night: during a sleepless night
The word “insomniac” here is used as a transferred epithet to
modify something inanimate.
More examples of transferred epithet:
Even so, the risk of discovery was beginning to cause Pettit
sleepless nights.
He threw a reassuring arm around my shoulder.
rat race: fierce competition
rubs to some: rubs as called by some people
disdain: think oneself superior to; reject
e.g.1) The older musicians disdain the new, rockinfluenced music.
2) Our new neighbors seem to be disdaining to speak
to us.
simulation: imitation of the conditions of (a situation
etc.); resemblance
e.g. I was quite deceived by her simulation of sorrow.
simulate: imitate; give the appearance of
e.g. In cheap furniture, plastic is often used to simulate
in the richer ones further out: in the richer suburbs farther away
from the city boundary
prim new trees: neatly pruned new trees
prim: 1) neat e.g. a prim garden
2) very formal and correct in behavior and easily
shocked by anything rude
e.g. She is much too prim and proper to go into a pub.
frenzy: uncontrolled and excited behavior or emotion, which is
sometimes violent
e.g. 1) A gunman killed ten people in a murderous frenzy today in
that city.
2) The audience worked themselves up into a frenzy as they
waited for the singer to come on stage.
…to the rush-hour traffic into the city there is now added a
rush-hour traffic out to the suburbs in the morning…
This is a partly inverted sentence, whose normal order is: there is now
a rush-hour traffic out to the suburbs in the morning added to the rush-hour
traffic into the city.
scandal: 1) something that causes a public feeling of outrage or
e.g. The minister was forced to resign after a scandal
involving him and another minister’s wife.
2) malicious gossip
e.g. Someone must have been spreading scandal.
reel: move from side to side unsteadily
e.g.1) At closing time he reeled out of the pub and
across the road.
2) She hit him so hard that he reeled across the
the rural life that has been surrendered for the city
lights: the rural life that has given way to the city lights
slumping along their streets: walking with stooping head
and shoulders along their streets
scurry: run or move hurriedly, especially with
short quick steps
e.g. We all scurried for shelter when the storm
far less the sky: looking at the sky far less than
they did their buildings.
What is this text mainly about?
Do you agree with the author’s thesis?
Main Ideas of Text 2
In the mainstream of American thinking, there has been a
strong anti-urban attitude. This thinking can be traced back
to Thomas Jefferson, who was the first major thinker to
express a clear antipathy to city life. All this is relevant not
only to past attitudes and legislative history, but also to the
modern history.
Throughout the text, the author expressed his dissatisfaction
with the current condition of the urban life in America and
unhappy with the strong anti-urban attitude.
Unit 15
By the end of this unit, you are supposed to
Grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear the
structure of the whole passage through an intensive
reading of Text 1 Dolly’s False Legacy
comprehend Text 1 thoroughly
get a list of new words and structures and use them
freely in conversation and writing.
Compare Text I and Text II
Text 1 Dolly’s False Legacy
Topics for discussion
 Do you know anything about Dolly, the first
sheep ever cloned in history?
 What do you know about cloning technique?
 What would happen if sometime, somewhere,
someone generated a cloned human being?
Background Information
Photographs of a rather ordinary-looking lamb
named Dolly made front pages around the world
because of her starling pedigree: Dolly, unlike any
other mammal that has ever lived, is an identical
copy of another adult and has no father.? She is a
clone, the creation of a group of veterinary
That work, performed by Ian Wilmut and his
colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh,
Scotland, has provided an important new research
tool and has shattered a belief widespread among
biologists that cells from adult mammals cannot be
persuaded to regenerate a whole animal.
Although the Scottish researchers have made clear
that they would consider it unethical to adapt their
technique to clone humans, the demonstration has
raised the uncomfortable prospect that others might
not be so scrupulous.? Cloning humans would mean
that women could in principle reproduce without
any help from men.
Structural analysis of Text 1 Dolly’s
False Legacy
The passage can be divided into three parts.
Part One: (Paragraph 1) serves as the introduction of the
topic of cloning and the thesis of the essay. That is to say it is
impossible to apply cloning to humans, today at least. The
following questions can be asked:
1) What does the author think of cloning from the technical
point of view? What evidence does he give to support it ?
2) What is the main point of the essay?
Part Two: (Paragraphs 2-12) This part is the body
of the essay, where the author argues against the
currently discussed practicality of applying the
cloning technique to humans from technical,
ethical and legal perspectives.
Para. 2-9: refute the reasons for wanting cloned
children from ethical or humane viewpoint.
Para. 10-11: argues from the technical angle that
cloning is not applicable to humans at present.
Para. 12: presents the difficulty in and necessity for
legal controlling of the use of the technique.
Questions to be considered:
1) What would be the similarities and differences between a
cloned child and its natural twin?
2) Is it acceptable, according to the author, for sterile
couples to have a cloned child? Why or why not ?
3) Why is the introduction of cloned children into
hypothetical families unacceptable?
4) What is wrong with the suggestion of cloning a child as
a substitute for the one tragically killed?
5) What is the technical hindrance of using the technique
to clone humans?
6) What is the author’s point with regard to the legal
control of the development and use cloning?
Part Three: (Paragraph 3):
This paragraph concludes the essay by restating the
thesis that cloning technique must be used cautiously.
Questions to be considered:
1) At what development stage is the cloning technique today?
2) What is the author’s attitude towards cloning?
Language points
Overlooked in the arguments about the
morality of artificially reproducing life
is the fact that , at present, cloning is a
very inefficient procedure.
This is an inverted sentence, and its normal order is:
“The fact that at present, cloning is a very inefficient
procedure is overlooked in the argument.”.
Overlooked :
. fail to notice; ignore or disregard
forgive; tolerate
E.g. We will overlook your bad behavior this time,
but don’t do it again.
provide a view from above
E.g. Our hotel room overlooked the harbor.
Distressing : upsetting
The television reports about the famine were particularly
render (a formal word)? vt.
1) V+ O +C(adj.):? to cause sb./ sth. to become…
It must have rendered him unconscious for a considerable
E.g. His rudeness rendered me speechless.
He has been influential in shaping economic policy.
2) translate
She is rendering the book into English from French.
Perfect :
Make something completely free from faults or defects, or as
close to such a condition as possible
He is keen to perfect his golfing technique.
intrusion :
the action of intruding
intrude :
introduce into a situation with disruptive or adverse effect
E.g. Inefficiency has introduced into every area of the company’s
1)lay on
The council has imposed a ban on alcohol in the city parks.
2) enforce compliance with
We need to impose some kind of order on the way we do
things in the office.
with a great liking
She smiled fondly at the children.
create or formulate (a concept, plan, or system)
in the event of
if something should happen
In the event of a strike, the army will take over
responsibility for firefighting.
turn something the other way round or inside out
I was almost knocked off my bike by a car reversing out of a
 defend; support
He has championed constitutional reform for many years.
 the action of compelling observance of or compliance
with (a law, rule, or obligation)
She’s looking for a career in law enforcement
 compel obedience to
It isn’t always easy for the police to enforce speed limits.
Main ideas of Text 2
Quietly, Animal Cloning Speeds Onward
Compare Text A and Text B in this unit to see
where the two authors differ from each other in their
attitude towards cloning.
In text I, the author is obviously dubious about
cloning. This can be proved by his use of the words
and expressions that carry negative meanings, e.g.: false
legacy in the title, very inefficient procedure, … incidence of
death.. higher, distressing enough, and unthinkable in the text.
His strong objection to whole-being cloning can be
seen in many statements such as Even if the technique
were perfect... in Paragraph 2, Every child should be wanted
for itself… in Paragraph 9, and … we must use it cautiously
in Paragraph 13
Unit 16
By the end of this unit, you are supposed to
grasp the author’s purpose of writing and make clear
the structure of the whole passage through an
intensive reading of Text 1 The Story of an Eyewitness
comprehend Text 1 thoroughly
Text 1. The Story of an
Topics for discussion
What do you think is the most destructive natural disaster?
 What is the biggest natural disaster you have experienced?
Background Information
The California earthquake of April 18, 1906 ranks as one
of the most significant earthquakes of all time. Rupturing
the northernmost 430 kilometers of the San Andreas fault
from northwest of San Juan Bautista to the triple junction
at Cape Mendocino, the earthquake confounded
contemporary geologists with its large, horizontal
displacements and great rupture length.
Violent shocks punctuated the strong shaking
which lasted some 45 to 60 seconds. The earthquake
was felt from southern Oregon to south of Los
Angeles and inland as far as central Nevada.
Casualties and damage after the earthquake
1).Dead - More than 3,000
2). Homeless - 225,000
3).Buildings Destroyed - 28,000
4). Monetary Loss - More than $400 million
An integrated Analysis of Text 1 The
Story of an Eyewitness
The passage can be divided into three parts.
Part One: (Paragraphs 1-3) gives a brief introduction to what happened in
San Francisco in 1906.
The following questions may be asked:
 Why does the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906 rank among
the most destructive earthquake of all time?
 What rhetorical devices did the author use to describe the damage to all
sections of San Francisco in Paragraph 2 ?
 Which brought more destructive damage to the city, the earthquake or
the following conflagration?
Part Two: (Paragraphs 4-13) This part tells the
reader in more detail what the author witnessed
on Wednesday morning, afternoon and night.
Questions to be considered:
How did the author describe the day of the earthquake?
Morning – 5:15 came the earthquake, flames were leaping
upward, fires started, streets were humped into ridges and
depressions, steel rails were twisted, telephone and telegraph
systems were disrupted.
Afternoon—half the heart of the city was gone, it was dead
calm, strong winds were blowing upon the doomed city,
heated air rising made an enormous suck.
Night – the very heart of the city was destroyed, dynamite was
used, structures were crumbled by man himself into ruins,
firefighters fought the flames. Wednesday night was a quiet
night, no crowds , no hysteria, no disorder.
Why do you think there was “no opposing the flames”, “no
organization, no communication”, “no withstanding the onrush
of the flames” after the earthquake and the fire occurred?
What is “the cunning adjustments of a 20th century city” and
what are “the shrewd contrivances and safeguards of man”?
What is the main idea of Paragraph 7?
How did the people of San Francisco behave? Why was this so
According to the author, why did those trunks break many
men’s heart?
What did the picket lines do ?
Part Three: (Para. 14-16): This part describes
what happened the next day, that is to say how
the very heart of the doomed city was being
completely destroyed by the spreading fire and
why the surrender was complete.
Questions to be considered:
What are the differences between the scene of
the very heart of the city at 9:00?
Did people try to fight against the fire?
Why does the author say “surrender was
Language points
shake down
cause to descend by shaking; bring down
an extensive fire which destroys a great deal of
land or property
this lurid tower swayed in the sky, reddening the sun,
darkening the day, and filling land with smoke…
… the fire, moving back and forth slowly, make the sun redder
and sky darker and covered the land with smoke.
There was no opposing the flames. There was o organization,
no communication.:
It was impossible to oppose the flames, and it was impossible
to organize any battles against the fire or communicate with
other people
All the cunning adjustments of a 20th city had been
smashed by the earthquake.
Human ingenuity enabled people t make all kinds of
adjustments ot nature. However, the achievements of
their efforts had been completely destroyed by the
The streets were humped into ridges and depressions..
The streets were no long smooth after the earthquake…
perpendicular: at an angle of 90o to a given line,
plane, or surface
 horizontal: parallel t the plane of the horizon; at
right angles to the vertical
 The heated air rising made an enormous suck.
It is commonly known that the hot air will rise up
while the cold air goes down, which forms the air
Thus did the fire of itself build its own colossal
chimney through the atmosphere.
The fire automatically followed the heated air rising to
the atmosphere, in the same way as the smoke and fire
go up through the chimney.
Overcome with, characterized by , or resulting from fear
or panic
a panic-striking mother looking for her child
Lighten up
Lessen the road
Before the march of the flames were flung picket lines
of soldiers.
The soldiers were sent to keep the crowds of people
moving before the march of the flames.
a heart-breaking hill
a steep hill that breaks man’s heart
force, or drive, especially to a course of action
His horse was played out when a day’s hunting was over.
 soft members of the middle class
those people in the middle class who were weak both in body
and spirit because of lack of effort or challenge
 at a disadvantage
in an unfavorable circumstance or condition
TEXT II Memories of the San Francisco
Earthquake and Fire
Compare Text II with Text I in this unit , the author of
Text I looks at the destruction caused by the earthquake
from the perspective of an adult whereas the author of
Text II does it from the perspective of a child. Try to find
their differences in attitude towards what they witness.
In Text II, you can find a change of attitude on the part
of an eight-year-old child in the following expressions and
clauses: excited (Paragraph 4), was curious to see the
nearest fire (Paragraph 6), saw many things that
entertained (Paragraph 9), the gravity of the situation
(Paragraph 14), sorry that others did not have the same
transportation (Paragraph 17), realize as never before the
importance of food, shelter and protection. (Paragraph 18).
In Text I , however, there is no such change of attitude on
the part of the author because Jack London was old enough
to know the gravity of the situation as soon as the
earthquake began.