Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach

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Transcript Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach

February 17 February 19

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Audience-Centered Speechmaking Process

An Audience-Centered Speechmaking Model

Always think of your audience

• •

Shows sensitivity to their needs.

Think if they understand your words.

Consider Your Audience

Gather & analyze information about audience.

• •

Consider culturally diverse backgrounds of audience.

Adapt speech to particular audience.


Select & Narrow Your Topic

• •

Who will be hearing your speech?

What is the occasion (event)?

What are YOUR interests, talents & experiences?

Special Occasion or Ceremonial Speaking










Introductions Toasts Award Presentations Nominations Acceptances Eulogies Keynote Addresses – No!

Commencement Addresses – No!

Commemorative / Tributes – Not so much!

2. Determine Your Purpose

General Purpose:

goal of your speech overarching Three (3) Types of General Purposes



Entertain: teach, define or clarify.

change or strengthen thoughts or behaviors.

amuse with stories, illustrations and humor.

Specific Purpose (YOU must have a “Special Purpose” note card.)

• •

Exact response you want from audience.

Concise statement indicating what you want audience to

do, think, feel or


• •

“At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to. . .” Use verbs such as: list, explain, describe or


Do not use words such as: know, understand or believe.

3. Develop Your Central Idea

Overview of speech (sometime called the thesis.)

One-sentence summary of speech and restates the speech topic.

Not a phrase, clause or question – Phrase: Car maintenance Question: Is regular car maintenance important?

Complete Delarative Sentence: Maintaining your car regularly can ensure that it provides reliable transportation.

An example of YOUR Note Card:

• • • •


The South Beach Diet.

General Purpose: To inform.

Specific Purpose: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to


Beach diet.

the three key elements in the South

Central Idea:

The South Beach diet is based upon reducing the amount of carbohydrates you eat, drinking more water, and increasing the amount of exercise.

4. Generate Main Ideas

• •

Identify how speech will logically divide.

How central idea logically divides will determine main ideas.

Reasons why central idea is true can be main ideas.

Series of steps to illustrate central idea can be main ideas.

5. Gather Supporting Material

• • • • •

Material that “backs up” ideas.

Can be personal &/or concrete.

Should appeal to listeners.

Research your supporting material.

Can be verbal, visual, or both.

6. Organize Your Speech

• • •

Start with body.

Arrange ideas to make most sense.

Prepare introduction & conclusion AFTER body.

Follow effective outlining techniques.

7. Rehearse Your Speech

• • • • •

Prepare early.

Practice out loud (7 X’s.) Observe your behaviors.

Make adjustments.

Rehearse in front of others.

8. Deliver Your Speech

• • • • • •

Walk calmly.

Walk confidently.

Remember rehearsals.

Maintain eye contact.

Speak loudly.

Vary your pitch.