Chapter 6:Sense Relations
吴熳 朱凤玲 刘恋
Polysemy=poly + semy
e.g. polygamy, polyglot (multilingual)
When first coined: monosemic
Development: same symbol, many senses
Meaning of “take”
She went out of the room, taking the flowers with her.
拿, 取, 抓
Who has taken my pen?
The flight took two hours.
She plans to take a course in mathematics.
取得, 接受, 容纳
John takes second place in the race.
We're taking a house in Devon for a month.
吃, 喝, 服
Will you take a cup of tea?
Because it was wet, he took a taxi.
测定, 量; 拍
The nurse took the patient's temperature.
The dye took immediately.
vt. & vi.
The fish is taking.
Take has lagged behind the increased outgo.
We had a talk between takes.
• in a historical perspective
• growth, development of the same word.
One meaning (primary meaning)
屏风, 帘, 纱窗
The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.
They hid behind the screen of bushes.
You can see him on the TV screen quite often.
She first appeared on the screen ten years ago.
Why little to do with the first meaning?
How are the later senses obtained?
Analogy: face of the clock
Old words die out: Obsolete, disappear
New words are added
Existing words change their meaning
• Derived meaning all come from the first
Primary meaning replaced by new meanings
1. Female servant especially in a large
2. (old use) a woman or a girl who is not
Have a guess!
1.They are regarded by all good wives far
and near as perfect barometers.
2. Robin Hood and his merry men hated the
rich and loved and protected the poor.
In a historical period
• Basic meaning
• Secondary meanings
(not in importance)
The front of the head
The expression of the countenance
A surface of a thing
The side or surface that is marked, as of a clock, playing card, domino, etc.
The appearance; outward aspect; resemblance
Dignity; self-respect; prestige, as in lose/save face
The topography (of an area)
The functional and striking surface (of a tool, golf club, etc.)
(colloq) effrontery; audacity
What is shown by the language of a document, without explanation and
(Mining) the end of a tunnel, drift, etc. where work is being done.
(typography) the type surface on which a letter is cut
Police discovered a cache of weapons in the
Processes of Development
Independent，can be traced back to the
• That part of man or animal joining the head to
• That part of the garment
• The neck of an animal used as food, e.g. neck of
• A narrow part between the head and body or
base of any object
• The narrowest part of anything: bottle, land,
strait or channel
• Office seeker in white gowns
• A person who seeks an office
• a person proposed for a place, award, etc.
Radiation and Concatenation
• Closely related
• Different stages
• R before C