Chapter 23 The Building of European Supremacy

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Transcript Chapter 23 The Building of European Supremacy

Chapter 23 Key Topics
• KEY TOPICS
• The transformation of European life by the
Second Industrial Revolution
• Urban sanitation, housing reform, and the
redesign of cities
• The condition of women in late nineteenthcentury Europe and the rise of political
feminism
• The emancipation of the Jews
• The development of labor politics and
socialism in Europe to the outbreak of World
War I
• Industrialization and political unrest in Russia
Population Trends & Migration
• population rises in Europe
until 1910 when it levels
off
• population rates continue
to rise in underdeveloped
nations and areas leading
to food shortages
• people continued to move
from rural to urban areas
• between 1846 and 1932, 50
million Europeans leave
their homeland to go to the
United States, Canada,
South Africa, Australia,
Brazil and Argentina
The
1870-1914
nd
2
Industrial Revolution
•
• new industries emerge in third quarter of
19th century leading to the Second
Industrial Revolution
• new industries included; steel, chemicals,
electricity, and oil
• Bessemer process – new way to mass
produce steel cheaply revolutionizes the
steel industry
• Solway process – uses alkali production to
make new soaps, dyes, and plastics
• electricity changes how people live and
travel
• automobiles
– Gottlieb Daimler – invents modern
internal combustion engine leading to
automobiles
– Henry Ford – American, who through
the assembly line made the auto
accessible to the masses
– autos lead to the growth of the oil
industry
The
nd
2
Industrial Revolution
•
•
•
Development “zones”
• Inner Zone  Br, Fr, Ger, Belg,
No. It, W. Austria
• Outer Zone  Ire., Iberian
Pen., most of Italy, Europe
east of Ger.
• Underdeveloped Zone  AfroAsia
“Second” Industrial Revolution
–
Steam  electricity
–
Internal combustion & diesel
engines.
–
Cars, planes, submarines.
–
Britain  “The World’s Industrial
Workshop”
–
Corporations  limited liability of
investments.
–
Mass production.
Free Trade-esp. Great Britain
World Markets
• bad weather and foreign competition make it tough for
European industries in the last quarter of the century
• stagnation, pockets of unemployment, bad working conditions,
strikes and other forms of labor unrest emerge
• expansion of industry and consumer demand bring Europe out
of stagnation by late in the century
The Middle Class in Ascendancy
social distinctions of the middle
class
– owners and mangers – lived
like an aristocracy
– comfortable small
entrepreneurs and
professional people (teachers,
librarians, shopkeepers) –
incomes permitted private
homes and large quantities of
furniture, education and
vacations
– “white collar workers” –
formed lower middle class –
petite bourgeoisie – such as
secretaries, retail clerks, lower
level bureaucrats – spent
money on consumer goods
that made sure to make them
look like middle class
• tensions mount between the
classes
The Middle Class in Ascendancy
Queen Victoria & Prince Albert admired the middle class & their fashion, social
mores, & manners both emulated and drove what would be today
considered ‘middle class.’
The Middle Class in Ascendancy
A Typical Middle Class British parlor
Late
th
19
Century Urban Life
The Redesign of Cities
• The New Paris
– Paris rebuilt for political
purposes – to discourage
riots and creation of
thousands of government
jobs
– department stores, office Emperor Napoleon III
complexes, apartments for
the middle class, and a
subway are built
– arts and architecture – Paris
Opera, Eiffel Tower, and
Basilica of the Sacred Heart
built
– suburbs – to get away from
the congestion of the city,
many middle-class residents
move to communities just
Baron Haussman
outside the urban centers
Late
th
19
Century Urban Life
Paris 1890s
Late 19th Century Urban Life
London 1890s
Late
th
19
Century Urban Life
Berlin 1890s
Late 19th Century Urban Life
Urban Sanitation
• cholera – believed to be caused
by filth and smell, touched all
classes and reached epidemic
proportions in 1830’s and
1840’s
• water and sewer systems –
disposed of human waste and
provided clean drinking water
• government involvement in
public health
– private property could be
condemned if deemed
unhealthy
– new building regulations
Varieties of Late Nineteenth-Century
Women's Experiences
Barriers for Women in Late 19th Century
• property – until last quarter of century – most women in
Europe could not own property – everything was in their
husband’s name / only Britain changed this in 1882 with
the Married Women’s Property Act
• family law – divorce was difficult to obtain, men had legal
control of the children, and contraception and abortion
were illegal
• education
– could not attend universities until late 19th century
– absence of secondary education for women
– women with professional jobs were considered radicals
and faced discrimination
Varieties of Late Nineteenth-Century
Women's Experiences
• What was the status of European women in the
2nd half of the 19th century?
• Why did they grow discontented with their lot?
• What factors led to change?
• To what extend had they improved their position
by 1914?
• What tactics did they use to effect change?
• Was the emancipation of women inevitable?
• How did women approach their situation
differently from country to country?
Women only gradually gained access to secondary and university education during the
second half of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. Young women
on their way to school, the subject of this 1880 English painting, would thus have been
a new sight when it was painted.
Sir George Clausen (RA) (1852–1944), “Schoolgirls, Haverstock Hill,” signed and dated 1880, oil on canvas, 20 × 30 in. (52 × 77.2 cm), Yale Center for British Art/Paul Mellon Collection,
USA/Bridgeman Art Library (B1985.10.1). Courtesy of the Estate of Sir George Clausen
The bicycle
helped
liberate
women’s
lives, but as
this poster
suggests, it
also was
associated
with glamour
and fashion.
© Archivo Iconografico,
S.A./CORBIS
Varieties of Late Nineteenth-Century Women's
Experiences
New Employment for Women
• new jobs – included secretaries, clerks,
and shop assistants / still paid low wages
• withdrawal from labor force – married
women less and less in work force due to:
– industries preferring unmarried women
– men living longer
– social expectations of the married
women
Women working in the London Central Telephone Exchange.
The invention of the telephone opened new employment
opportunities for women.
Image Works/Mary Evans Picture Library Ltd.
Varieties of Late Nineteenth-Century Women's
Experiences
Working-Class Women
• putting-out system – manufacturer
would purchase material then put it
out to the tailors
• subject to layoffs when demand for
products slowed
• had low wages and subject to
exploitation
Varieties of Late Nineteenth-Century Women's
Experiences
Prostitution
• women displaced
in an overcrowded
work force turned
to prostitution
• most large 19th
century cities had
legal prostitution
• usually low-skill
workers with little
education /
"Albertine at the Police Doctor's Waiting Room",
customers were
painting by the Norwegian writer and
working class men 1885-87
painter Christian Krohg illustrating his then very
controversial novel about the life of a prostitute
Varieties of Late Nineteenth-Century Women's Experiences
Middle Class Women
• domesticity – oversaw virtually all
the domestic management and child
care
• religion – assured the religious
instruction of their children and
prayer was a major part of their daily
lives
• charity – worked with poor youth,
poor young women, schools for
infants, and societies for visiting the
poor
• sexuality – less sexual repression and
due to contraceptives and the cost of
having children, smaller families
“Sweetness is to woman what
sugar is to fruit. It is her first
busines to be happy - a sunbeam
in the house, making others happy.
True, she will often have "a tear in
her eye", but, like the bride of
young Lochinvar, it must be
accompanied with "a smile on her
lips."
Girls and women are willing
enough to be agreeable to men if
they do not happen to stand to
them in the relation of father,
brother, or husband; but it is not
every woman who remembers that
her raison d'être is to give out
pleasure to all as a fire gives out
heat.”
Rev. E.J.Hardy, Manners Makyth
Man, 1887
Department stores, such as
Bon Marche in Paris, sold
wide
selections of consumer
goods under one roof.
These modern
stores increased the
economic pressure on
small traditional
merchants who specialized
in selling only one kind of
good.
(See “Paris Department
Stores Expand their
Business,”
page 766.)
Image Works/Mary Evans
Picture Library Ltd.
Rise of Feminism
• obstacles – many women did not support the feminist movement
because
– sensitivity to class and economic interests
– cared more about national unity and patriotism
– religious women uncomfortable with radical secularists
• women’s suffrage in Britain – suffrage – the movement for women to
vote
– Millicent Fawcett – led the moderate National Union of Women’s
Suffrage Societies
– Emmeline Pankhurst – led more radical Women’s Social and
Political Union, which encouraged strikes, arson, and vandalism
– women given right to vote in Britain in 1918
• political feminism – women granted right to vote in France (after
World War II) and Germany (1919)
• Union of German Women’s Organizations – founded in 1894,
supported suffrage, but more concerned about education, social, and
political conditions
Emmeline Pankhurst (1857–1928) was frequently arrested for
forcibly advocating votes for British women.
Hulton Archive Photos/Getty Images Inc.
Jewish
Emancipation
Because many major financial
institutions of nineteenthcentury Europe were owned
by wealthy Jewish families,
anti-Semitic political figures
often blamed them for
economic hard times. The
most famous such family was
the Rothschilds who
controlled banks in several
countries. The head of the
London branch was Lionel
Rothschild (1808–1879). He
was elected to Parliament
several times, but was not
seated because he would not
take the required Christian
oath. After the requirement of
that oath was
abolished in 1858, he sat in
Parliament from 1858 to 1874.
Getty Images Inc.– Hulton Archive Photos
Jewish Emancipation
Jewish Citizenship
• first half of 19th
century, Jews in
Western Europe
began to gain equal
citizenship
• still many Jews could
not own land and
were subject to
discriminatory taxes
Russian Jews
• government to the Jews
– limited book
publications
– restricted areas where
they could live
– banned them from state
service
– excluded them from
higher education
• pogroms – organized riots
against Jewish
neighborhoods, supported
by the government
Jewish Emancipation
The victims, mostly Jewish children, of a 1905 pogrom
in Yekaterinoslav
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Jewish_pogroms_in_the_Russian_Empire
Labor, Socialism, & Politics to WWI
Political Parties
• universal male suffrage
brings organized
political parties
• political parties with its
workers, newspapers,
offices, social life, and
discipline mobilize
new voters
• socialist parties were
divided on whether to
accept social reform or
start a revolution
Labor, Socialism, & Politics to WWI
The First International
• British and French
trade unionists form
the First International,
made up of socialists,
anarchists and Polish
nationalists
• although short-lived,
its updates on labor
groups and conditions
led to Marxism
Karl Marx 1818-1883
becoming the most
Author of: The
important social strand
Communist
of socialism
Manifesto & Das
Kapital
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Marx
Official
Symbol of the
Socialist
International
Great Britain: Fabianism & Early Welfare Programs
• British socialism rejected Marxism- composed of Trade Unions
and non-Marxist intellectuals.
• Organized around Trade Unions-1892 Keir Hardie 1st ‘working
man’ to be elected to Parliament.
• Until 1901 labor & trade unions were allied with the Liberal
Party in politics
• Most influential group the Fabian Society favored change
gradually, peacefully, and democratically.
• Many early Fabians were famous British intellectuals:
Beatrice & Sydney
Webb
George Bernard
Shaw
H.G. Wells
MP Kier Hardie
Tom & Virginia Woolf
Bertrand Russell
Emmeline
Pankhurst
Great Britain: Fabianism & Early Welfare Programs
• Fabians did not favor the Marxist style total state of ownership of all means
of production-rather favored more pragmatic collective ownership at the
muncipal level-”gas & water socialism”-social democracy
• 1901 Conservative dominated House of Lords vetoed legal protections for
Trade Union.
• In response the Trade Union Congress launched the Labour Party.
• Labour Party was ‘arm’ were Trade Union workers, its’ ‘head’ was the
Fabians.
• 1906: Labor had 29 MPs. By the 1920s Labour had surpassed the Liberal
Party as the main left-wing party in the UK & main opposiyon to the
Conservatives.
• 1924 Labor Party wins the general election & Ramsay MacDonald becomes
the first Labour Prime Minister of UK.
I won the
election…
…*sigh* I know…
PM Ramsay MacDonald
HRM King George V
French Opportunism Rejected
Jean Jaures
Georges
Sorel
• opportunism – participation by socialists
in the legislatures/cabinets of non-socialist
governments
• Opportunism rejected by the 2nd
International & ordersFrench socialists to
form one single party.
• French workers often voted Socialist, but
avoided political action
• non-socialist labor unions with a tradition
in anarchism looked to strikes as their
main labor tactic-the general strike
• Syndicalism: movement/and or economic
system that strives to replace capitalism
through action by the working class on the
industrial front through labor unions as a
potential means to overcome capitalism
and administer society fairly.
Germany: Social Democrats &
Revisionism
• Bismarck represses German Social
Democratic Party (SPD)
– anti-socialist laws passed by Reichstag
actually strengthen the numbers of the
SPD
– passes programs such as accident
insurance, disability & old age pensions
as a conservative alternative to socialist
policies
• The Erfurt Program-1891 – supported
Marxist ideas of the collapse of capitalism,
but wanted to pursue goals through
legislative action, not revolution-a hybrid
between Marxism & British Fabianism
• Revisionism – German socialists ideas of
achieving humane social equality without
having a revolution founded by Eduard
Bernstein
• critics of Revisionism felt that evolution
towards socialism would not work in
militaristic, authoritative Germany
Eduard Bernstein
Karl Kautsky
August Bebel