Transcript UYGUR_FN

Allelopathic studies in Çukurova region,
Turkey
Nezihi Uygur
Çukurova University,
Agricultural Faculty,
Department of Plant Protection
[email protected].tr
Allelopathy has been defined as the direct or
indirect harmful or beneficial effects of one plant
on another through the production of chemical
compounds that escape into the environment
Numerous allelochemicals have been idendified as
-Phenolic acids,
-Coumarins,
-Terpenoids,
-Flavonoids,
-Alkaloids,
-Glycosides,
-Isothiocyanate,
-Glucosinolates.
Allelopathy studies;
-Allelopathic crops, Radish (Raphanus sativus),
-Allelopathic and bioherbicidal effect of the
plant parts residues from Eucalyptus
camaldulensis, Melia azedarach, Nerium
oleander etc. on growth of weeds and crops,
-The effect of vinegar and citric acide on
weeds,
-Effect of mustard and other oils on
germination and development of weed species,
-The effect of industrial production waste on
weed density in perennial crops.
The Brassicaceae family is important for
allelopathic potential, as its members frequently
produces allelopathic substances
Radish (Raphanus sativus)
-Important crop in
Turkey,
-Especially in southern
provinces,
-141.505 tons/2009 year
April
COTTON
September
Johnsongrass
*****
March
August
June
October
Johnsongrass
****
September
RADISH
WHEAT
September
April
COTTON
Johnsongrass
*
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)-Harvest time
Break into pieces
Ready to incorporate into soil
To mix with soil
sayısı/m
2
kg turp-yumru/m2
■ 0 kg 0radish
root/m2
2,5radish
kg turp-yumru/m2
■ 2,5 kg
root/m2
kg turp-yumru/m2
■ 5 kg 5radish
root/m2
kg turp-yumru+sap/m2
■ 5 kg 5radish
root+stem/m2
450
400
Sorghum halepense rizom
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
02
29
5
15
Mayıs
May
Mayıs
May
Haziran
June
Haziran
June
26
03
11
17
25
01
07
25
Haziran
Temmuz
June
July Temmuz
July Temmuz
July Temmuz
July Ağustos
August Ağustos
August Ağustos
August
The Effect of Radish on Sorghum halepense
before Cotton Sowing
Different Concentrations of the Radish Extract
Radish
Extract 100%
Radish
Extract 66%
Radish
Radish
Steril
Extract 50% Extract 33% Distilled Water
Effect of Radish on emergence
of Johnsongrass (Sorghum
halepense (L.) Pers.) rhizomes
Süren Rizom Sayısı
100
Steril Destile Su
80
%33'lük
Turp
Suyu
□ Steril
Distilled
Water
■ Radish Extract 33%
%50'lik
Turp50%
Suyu
■ Radish
Extract
■ Radish Extract 66%
%66'lık Turp Suyu
■ Radish Extract 100%
60
40
%100'lük Turp Suyu
20
0
Uygulamalar
Applications
Effect of Radish on emergence
of Bermudagrass (Cynodon
dactylon (L.) Pers.) rhizomes
Süren Rizom Sayısı
100
Steril Destile Su
80
%33'lük
Turp
Suyu
□ Steril
Distilled
Water
■ Radish Extract 33%
%50'lik
Turp
Suyu
■ Radish
Extract
50%
■ Radish Extract 66%
%66'lık
Turp
Suyu
■ Radish
Extract
100%
60
40
%100'lük Turp Suyu
20
0
Applications
Uygulamalar
Çimlenen Tohum Sayısı
Effect of Radish on germination
of Redroot pigweed
(Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds
100
Steril Destile Su
%33'lük Turp Suyu
□ Steril Distilled Water
%50'lik
Turp33%
Suyu
■ Radish
Extract
■ Radish
Extract
%66'lık
Turp50%
Suyu
■ Radish Extract 66%
%100'lük Turp Suyu
80
60
40
■ Radish Extract 100%
20
0
Applications
Uygulamalar
Çimlenen Tohum Sayısı
Effect of Radish on germination
of Common purslane
(Portulaca oleracea L.) seeds
100
Steril Destile Su
80
%33'lük Turp Suyu
□ Steril Distilled Water
■ Radish
Extract
%50'lik
Turp33%
Suyu
■ Radish Extract 50%
%66'lık
Turp66%
Suyu
■ Radish
Extract
■ Radish
Extract
100%
%100'lük
Turp
Suyu
60
40
20
0
Applications
Uygulamalar
Effect of Radish on germination
of Rough cocklebur
(Xanthium strumarium L.) seeds
Çimlenen Tohum Sayısı
100
Steril Destile Su
80
%33'lük
TurpWater
Suyu
□ Steril
Distilled
■ Radish
Extract
%50'lik
Turp 33%
Suyu
■ Radish Extract 50%
%66'lıkTurp
■ Radish
Extract Suyu
66%
■ Radish
Extract
100%
%100'lük
Turp
Suyu
60
40
20
0
Applications
Uygulamalar
Çimlenen Tohum Sayısı
100
Steril Destile Su
80
Turp
Suyu
□ Steril%33'lük
Distilled
Water
■ Radish
Extract
33%
%50'lik
Turp
Suyu
■ Radish Extract 50%
%66'lık
Turp
Suyu
■ Radish
Extract
66%
■ Radish
ExtractTurp
100%Suyu
%100'lük
60
40
20
0
Applications
Uygulamalar
Effect of Radish on germination
of Cotton seeds
- There is no effect on cotton
germination.
Çimlenen Tohum Sayısı
100
Steril Destile Su
%33'lük
TurpWater
Suyu
□ Steril
Distilled
■ Radish
Extract
%50'lik
Turp33%
Suyu
■ Radish Extract 50%
%66'lık
Turp66%
Suyu
■ Radish
Extract
■ Radish
Extract
100%
%100'lük
Turp
Suyu
80
60
40
20
0
Applications
Uygulamalar
Effect of Radish on germination
of Soybean seeds
- There is an negative effect on
soyabean germination at 50,66,100%
concentrations.
No any
germination
in many
weeds as
Convolvulus
arvensis,
Alopecurus
myosuroides
Effect of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Root Extract on
Seeds of Some Weeds
Lolium multiflorum
Lactuca sativa
Germination (%)
100
80
60
40
20
0
C 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 R.
sativus
extract
Effect of Choromotographic Fractions of Radish
(Raphanus sativus) Extract on Two Test Plants
Two fractions were the most effective on
the germination on test plants
S- Glc
R-C
Sulfataz
K+
N-O-SO3
R-N=C=S
Thioglucosidaz
Isothiocyanate
(Mustard oil)
Amaranthus retroflexus L.
Control
Germination (%)
100
Eucaly ptus camaldulensis
80
Melia azedarach
Nerium oleander
60
Raphanus sativ us
40
Nerium oleander and
Melia azedarach were the
most effective
allelopathic plants against
germination of five weed speices
20
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.
0
Portulaca oleracea L.
Prosopis stephaniana Kunth.
Germination (%)
100
40
20
0
40
20
100
Germination (%)
Germination (%)
60
60
0
100
80
80
80
60
Xanthium strumarium L.
40
20
0
Effect of Various Plant Extracts on
the Germination of Some Weeds Seeds
Germination (%)
100
80
60
40
20
0
Effect of Mustard Oil on Germination of
Yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.)
40
10
Root Radicle (mm)
8
Shoot (mm)
30
Lenght (mm)
No. of Germinated Seed
35
6
4
25
20
15
10
2
5
0
0
Control
Low er Layer Middle Layer
Upper Layer
Control
Low er Layer Middle Layer Upper Layer
-Germination of C. solstitialis was negatively
effected by three different layer of
mustard oil+water mixture,
-The mixture also reduced the lenght of
-root radicle of C. solstitialis
120
6
100
5
Dry Weight (g)
Damage Rate (%)
Effect of Single Post-emergence Mustard Oil
Application on Growth of Yellow starthistle
(Centaurea solstitialis L.)
80
60
40
4
3
2
20
1
0
0
Control
MO (20%)
UL
MO (20%)
LL
MO (40%)
UL
MO (40%)
LL
Control
MO (20%)
UL
- 40% concentration of mustard oil caused
more than 80% damage on C. solstitialis,
- The same concentration also reduced the
dry weight of C. solstitialis .
MO (20%)
LL
MO (40%)
UL
MO (40%)
LL
100
3,0
80
2,5
Dry Weight (g)
Damage Rate (%)
Effect of Two Post-emergence Mustard Oil
Application on Growth of Yellow starthistle
(Centaurea solstitialis L.)
60
40
20
2,0
1,5
1,0
0,5
0
Control
MO (20%)
UL
MO (20%)
LL
MO (40%)
UL
MO (40%)
LL
0,0
Control
MO (20%)
UL
MO (20%)
LL
MO (40%)
UL
MO (40%)
LL
- 40% concentration of mustard oil caused more than
60% damage on C. solstitialis,
- The same concentration also reduced the dry weight of
C. solstitialis .
Thank you for your attention!