Drucker (1974)- Management: Tasks,
employer has no business with a man’s
personality. It is immoral as well as an illegal
intrusion of privacy. It is an abuse of power.
Employment is a specific contract calling for a
specific performance…an employee owes no
“loyalty”, he owes no “love” and no
“attitudes”—he owes performance and nothing
• The unique qualities of an individual and how
those qualities affect understanding of
themselves and others
Role of Heredity and the Brain
• External appearance – due to genetics
• Internal characteristics – nature vs. nurture –
Twin Studies show that 40% are fixed…60%
would you describe it?
• Are you more like your mom or dad?
it change over time?
it change depending on who you are
Trait Theory - understand individuals
by breaking down behavior patterns
into observable traits
Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes
the unconscious determinants of
Humanistic Theory - emphasizes
individual growth and improvement
Integrative Approach - describes
personality as a composite of an
individual’s psychological processes
The Four Perspectives on Personality
Behavior Springs From
impulses and social restraints
Projective tests aimed at
A speculative, hard-to-test
theory with enormous cultural impact
influenced dispositions, such
that assess the strengths
as extraversion or introversion of different traits
(b)Peer ratings of behavior
A descriptive approach criticized as sometimes underestimating the variability
of behavior from situation
Processing conscious feelings
about oneself in the light of
A humane theory that
interest in the self; criticized
as subjective and sometimes
naively self-centered and
Reciprocal influences between
people and their situation,
colored by perceptions of
(a)Questionnaire assessments Art interactive theory that inof people’s feelings of control tegrates research on learning,
(b) Observations of people’s
cognition, and social behavior,
behavior in particular
criticized as underestimating
the importance of emotions
and enduring traits
How much of personality
is based on genetics?
How much of your personality
was developed, learned,
strengthened over time?
Socialization trains us how to act
in relationship to others.
Parents are our first teachers.
Timely and consistent feedback
Work group morale
does have a long run
impact, but not on everything.
Futile to Study Personality
Barrick and Mount Propose the “Big 5”
Big 5 now Widely Accepted and Used
Other Personality Traits or “Individual
Differences” Still Researched
Conscientiousness Hardworking, organized,
Emotional stability Calm, self-confidant, cool
Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The
Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.
Core Self Evaluation Traits
• Your belief as to your competence and your image
• High self-esteem – positive attitudes, feelings, and
Feelings of Self
Locus of Control
I control what
happens to me!
control my fate!
lack of control
• Nursing Homes
Generalized Self-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations
about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task
Sources of self-efficacy
• Prior experiences and prior success
• Behavior models (observing success)
• Assessment of current physical & emotional
Behavior based on cues from people & situations
High self monitors
• flexible: adjust
to the situation and
the behavior of others
• can appear
Low self monitors
• act from internal
states rather than
from situational cues
• show consistency
• less likely to respond
to work group norms
Accomplish tasks, meet other’s
expectations, seek out central
positions in social networks
Make a job-related
Demonstrate higher levels of managerial
self-awareness; base behavior on other’s
cues and the situation
with Sharks Without Being Eaten
Harvey B. Mackay (2005)
“…to connect with celebrities you need
to avoid the “fan syndrome” and instead
talk to them about their interests.”
Positive Affect - an individual’s
tendency to accentuate the positive
aspects of oneself, other people, and
the world in general
Negative Affect - an individual’s
tendency to accentuate the negative
aspects of oneself, other people, and
the world in general
overwhelm the effects
of individual personalities
by providing strong cues
in a weak
Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to
Behavioral Measures - personality assessments
that involve observing an individual’s behavior
in a controlled situation
Self-Report Questionnaire - assessment
involving an individual’s responses to questions
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual
on Carl Jung’s work
• People are fundamentally different
• People are fundamentally alike
• People have preference combinations for
extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment
& Myers developed the MBTI to
understand individual differences
How one gathers
How one makes
How one orients to the
5, CSET, MBTI
• Certain jobs (sales, QA, leadership)
• At certain times (e.g., status quo, crisis)
• More than performance?
Do you feel organizations should hire people based
upon their personality characteristics?
What are the issues with this?
When people are hired into a job (e.g., engineering)
do you think the personality is attracted to the job, or
the job shapes the personality? Why?
“I didn’t used to me this way until I started working
the meaning of attitudes
and their emotional, informational,
and behavioral components.
the antecedents of workrelated attitudes, the functions they
perform, and how they are changed.
• Persistent tendency to feel and behave in a
particular way towards some object
Characteristics of Attitudes
• They tend to persist unless something is done to
• They can fall anywhere along a continuum from
very favorable to very unfavorable.
• They are directed toward some object about
which a person has feelings and beliefs.
the brain with fMRI
Job Attitudes and Actual Behavior
• The belief, attitude, intention sequence is
presumably followed by actual behavior.
• This traditional model suggests that behaviors
(including job performance) are largely
influenced by job attitudes. (e.g., absenteeism)
• Recently, this traditional model has been
questioned as being too simple and some more
comprehensive alternatives have been
• Emotional – feelings about an object
• Informational – beliefs and information about the
• Behavioral – tendencies to behave in a particular
manner towards an object (usually behavioral
Only behavioral can be directly observed
of Work-Related Attitudes:
• Positive affect – overall sense of well-being,
engaged, and experience positive attitudes
• Negative affect – nervous, tense, anxious, and
in history of Job Satisfaction
Formal research began in mid-1930’s
• 1932 I/O textbooks had no mention of job
satisfaction or organizational commitment
• By 1972 over 3000 articles published
specifically exploring worker attitudes
• Methodological breakthroughs
• Statistical techniques
Americans like their jobs overall
People are relatively satisfied with the
nature of the work itself:
• How interesting it is
• Having lots of contact with people
less happy with rewards
• Chances for promotion
Determinants of Job Satisfaction
Copyright 1999 by Brent Smith,
on Job Satisfaction
• Mental challenge in the work itself
• Work Group
• Working Conditions
• Something most of us believe we are entitled to
or at least desire from our work
• Link to important organizational outcomes
of Job Satisfaction
• Satisfaction and Performance
• Satisfaction and Turnover
• Satisfaction and Absenteeism
• Other Effects and Ways to Enhance Satisfaction
a happy worker a productive
Correlations positive and low to
• .16 with overall satisfaction in individual
• .30 with overall satisfaction in meta-analytic
• .10 with specific facets
is the association not larger?
Meaning of Organizational
Organizational Commitment has
been related to many different
on financial need)
to Enhance Organizational
Create a community
Support employee development
• self identity
• Negatively loaded “territoriality”
I feel I need to protect my ideas from being used by
others in my organization.
I am confident in my ability to contribute to my
I would challenge anyone in my organization if I
thought something was done wrong.
I feel I belong in this organization.
I feel this organization’s success is my success.
we care if employees are satisfied as
long as they do their job well?
your current job: what steps
could be taken to enhance job
What is personality?
What are some common personality traits?
Why should knowledge of personality matter to today’s
Would you say it is better to train personality or to select for
Describe Big 5, CSET, MBTI, Job Satisfaction, Organizational
What are the components of an attitude?
What is self monitoring and why is it important?