BIBFRAME - Describe NZ
BIBFRAME - Describe NZ
Linked-Data in the Wild
Resource Description Framework (RDF)
and its structure: from MARC to BIBFRAME
Main points from Talk
1 + Talk 2
• BIBFRAME is an initiative and intellectual framework which will likely
replace MARC as the foundation for data-exchange and informationsharing of bibliographic information
• Other data Linked Open Data (LOD) is made possible Resource
Description Framework (RDF). RDF is a framework for describing
Web resources, which is anything that can be retrieved or identified
on the Web via a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)
• The BIBFRAME model works well across the Web and allows users
to find resources in library catalogues around the world, but is still
• The BIBFRAME model will enable us to use RDA as it was intended
to be used. It’s part of LOD and learning about BIBFRAME will give
you not only the tools but the skills to adapt in the future.
The model uses “works” and “instances” as its basis. The model also
uses “authorities” and “annotation” to describe RDA Works,
Expressions, Manifestations and items (WEMI).
In Talk 2, we saw MacBeth staged as a conceptual model
of LOD. Specifically, MacBeth was converted to “triples”
Shakespeare -> isCreatorOf -> MacBeth
Triples are an efficient way to represent information
because triples give exact meaning to what they
describe, like a sentence in natural language. Therefore,
triples work both ways and have reciprocal relationships.
MacBeth -> hasCreator -> Shakespeare
How a RDF triple works
Each RDF-triple is a statement that has three parts.
Multiple RDF triples = graph
Using these three simple statements, let's turn this into a RDF graph:
-Bengie is a dog.
-Bonnie is a cat.
-Bengie and Bonnie are friends.
Now machines can read!
The difference between mark-up and LOD
is the addition of meaning to data.
Who is using LOD/RDF today?
Linked Open Data has been used for some time. It is
being used on news websites, by universities by
national libraries in the UK, Spain, the US, Germany,
Sweden and many other institutions.
Why should libraries use it?
Increasing viability and acceptance of interoperating with data from
outside of libraries;
RDA gives us an opportunity to fundamentally rethink some
features of our data;
Semantic Web activities have been given new life with the
grassroots Linked Data movement.
Source: DLP Brown Bag Series, 2010
RDF incorporates data from
other sources? Yes, right now!
BBC Wildlife Finder
Slide by Thomas Baker, “What Makes the Linked Data
Approach Different,” NISO DCMI Webinar 2010.
With LOD, records are resources
computers can share
Uniquie Resource Identifier (URI)
And for all those literate
machines out there, there
are different “dialects”!
The path to Linked Open Data
Finally, when libraries and other
institutions make their data available, they
meet the 5-star criteria.
BIBFRAME allows libraries to leverage LOD
Useful Web / RDF definitions 1
• HTTP content negotiation: process for delivering content
(data) in different formats (e.g. RDF, XML, HTML) based
on HTTP requests.
Useful Web / RDF definitions 2
Triplestore: a database for storing RDF data; this
is needed for linked data.
Useful Web / RDF definitions 3
RDF vocabularies and ontologies define categories of
things and their relationships with each other. Dublin
Core is a good example of a standard web ontology.
Definition: An entity primarily responsible for making the resource.
Type of Term: Property
In other words, they are controlled
vocabularies for the Web!
Useful Web / RDF definitions 4
RDFS (the RDF Schema) : a basic vocabulary for
• RDFS defines RDF classes and properites
Class: a category of resource; a resource in such a
category is said to be an instance of the class.
Property: a relation between a subject and object in a triple
Schemas provide a framework to make Web
vocabularies more accessible to humans and machines.
Source: http://www.dlib.indiana.edu/education/ Source: https://schema.org/
Linked Data on show
Now you know three important things about Linked Data on the Web.
1. What RDF triples are (groups of 3-part datasets relating a resource
to another) and multiple triples are called graphs;
2. How triples are organised and defined (using web vocabularies);
3. How these data are transmitted (via Web pages as HTTP requests)
from triplestores (databases for data in triples-form) using precordinated rules (web Schemas).
You are now ready to see Linked Data in action using BIBFRAME.
First we will examine “The Master and Margarita” by Mikhail
Bulgakov in MARC. We will examine just the creator, title and
Authorised Access Point for brevity. The we will reconstruct it in
The Master and Margarita in OPAC at LC
Now the BIBFRAME view at LC
MARC 010 LCCN
used to build the “permalink”
Here is the MARC version of the
bibliographic record for The Master and
A typical bibliographic record in AACR2
Note Bulgakov’s name authority
BIBFRAME Vocabulary 1
• Available at: http://bibframe.org/vocab-list/
For example, creator looks like this:
Generalized creative responsibility role.
Label: Creator role
SubProperty Of: bf:agent
• The vocabulary terms can be used like MARC fields.
BIBFRAME Vocabulary 2
Title looks like this:
• Word, character, or group of words and/or
characters that is a name given to a
Title information relating to a resource: title proper,
translated title, or variant form of title.
Label: Title Entity
SubClass Of: bf:Resource
See also: http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/docs/vocab-conventions.html
Linking directly to the authority
The previous 2 slides can be summaried as:
Bulgakov’s LCCN (MARC 010) is
now is now part of a URI so can be
used as linked data. We won’t need
to input this kind of information directly ourselves. Spot other URIs.
<bf:title>Master and Margarita</bf:title>
BBC Nature: the Kākāpō and RDF
How the kākāpo gets to you
RDF in action
BBC RDFa behind the scenes
give the machines reference to same definition. The Web “knows”
what sort of page this is
and expects RDF because
of the DTD.
RDF and the Kākāpo (cont.)
Google search: we find
not only the RDF-version
of the BBC article (not
the HTML version!), but
also id.loc.gov authorities
BBC and the kākāpo (cont.)
BIBFRAME transformation &
BIBFRAME is a model for conveying,
formatting and displaying bibliographic
information. Even though it’s not finished
yet, we can have a look right now at the
Audience input and questions are welcome.
Thank you very much. This
concludes the BIBFRAME series