Transcript Document

Workshop on
‘Transportation of OIL & GAS through Pipelines’
Fire Protection Facilities,
Emergency Response Plan
Hydrocarbon Fire Fighting Techniques
Hazards and accident potentials
Hazards and accident potentials
What is Hazard
Why to know about hazard
Kind of hazard
Special Risks Association with pipeline
Management control of hazards
Fire Protection Facilities
Basics of fire
• Fire extinction principle
• Types of fire protection facilities
What is Hazard
• Untoward incidents hidden behind the curtain of reality are
called hazard.
• Unexpected events having damage
machine or property.
potential for man or
• Hazard is the potential to cause harm.
• A hazard is a situation in the workplace that has the potential to
harm the health and safety of people or to damage plant and
Why to Know about the hazard
• If not handled properly they will result in
accident/ disaster etc.
• To eliminate accidents.
• To minimise occurrence of accidents.
• To control the loss and damage that an accident
may cause.
• To provide various protection measures to safe
guard man and machine.
Kind of Hazards
A. Material
Alkali, Acid
Toxic Materials
III. Explosive materials
B. Conditions
Hanging loads
Slippery surfaces
III. Rotating machines
Kind of Hazards
C. Energy
Heat due to Steam, Flame, Fire
ii. Electricity
iii. Noise
iv. UV radiation, cosmic rays, atomic radiation
D. Activities
i. Vehicle races
ii. Overhead construction
iii. Swimming in sea and high current rivers
iv. Sky diving
Kind of Hazards
ii. Earth quake
iii. Flood
iv. Cyclone
Presence of enemy
Lack of knowledge
Wrong attitude
v. Adamant, egoistic , saboteurs
Special Risks Association with
pipeline Transportation
 Highly Inflammable hazardous material is handled.
 High Pressure encountered in the process.
 Ignition from outside on Leakage from System.
 Loss of Containment/Accidental Releases.
 Inapproachability to the leakage site to control the
 Restoration takes considerable time.
 Pollution of environment
 Payment of huge compensation
Management Control of Hazard
Unsafe Condition
Unsafe Actions
• Safe guarding all machines,
equipments, work space etc.
• Job safety Analysis
• Rectifying
or preventing
defective conditions.
• Investigation
• Suitable & safe design &
• Safe arrangements, processes,
methods of work etc.
• Suitable illumination
• Ventilation
• PPEs
• Inspection of Plant
& equipments
• Recording
tabulation of data
• Analysis of data
•Personal Adjustment
and training
•Self discipline
What is Fire
 An exothermic reaction resulting
combination of heat fuel and oxygen.
 Fire involves rapid oxidation at high
temperatures accompanied by the evolution
of highly heated gaseous products of
combustion and emission of visible and
invisible radiation.
 Initiation of fire requires combustible
materials, oxygen and an energy source
(heat) to provide ignition. Three components fuel , oxygen & heat are referred as the fire
Classification of Fire
 Class-A - Fires involving ordinary combustible materials
like wood,paper,textiles,rubber etc.
 Class-B -Fires involving flammable liquids or liquefiable
solids, such as oils, solvents, petroleum products,paints,
varnishes etc.
 Class-C - Fire involving gases or liquefied gases under
pressure for eg. LPG, Hydrogen etc.
 Class-D Fire involving combustible metal
Magnesium, sodium Zinc, Titanium etc.
Classification of Petroleum Product
Petroleum Products are divided in to following
 Class A
- Flash point < 23 deg. C
 Class B - Flash point > 23 degC &< 65 degC
 Class C - flash point > 65 degC & < 93 deg.C
 Unclassified : flash point> 93 deg.c and above
Important Properties of Petroleum Product
 For all flammable liquids, it is the vapour which burns and not the
 Flammable vapour burns only when mixed with proper percentage
of oxygen as support of combustion.
 Flammable limits of petroleum products roughly lies between
slightly greater than 1% and less than 10%.
 Petroleum vapour is heavier than air so it has tendency to discend
on ground or lower level or sump.
 Petroleum is immiscible with water. Its specific gravity is less than
1, so they float on water
 Electric conductivity of almost all petroleum products ( except
crude oil, ethanol etc.) is very low and hence it generates static
electricity during storage and transportation
Principle of fire Extinction
 Starvation
- Removing or blanketing the fuel
 Smothering - Cutting off or diluting the oxygen supply
 Cooling - Removing heat from the fire.
Different Agents to Fire Fire
 Sand
 Blanketing
 Water
 Steam
 Chemical foam
 Carbon dioxide
 Dry Chemical Powder
 Aqueous Film Forming Foam ( AFFF)
Suitability of Extinguishing media
to Different class of Fire
Class of
Fires involving ordinary combustible
materials such as wood, paper, textiles
Fires involving flammable liquids like
oils, petroleum products, paints
varnishes etc.
Foam, Dry chemical
Powder,Carbon Dioxide.
Fires involving gaseous substances
such as LPG, Hydrogen etc.
Dry Chemical Powder
Carbon Dioxide.
Fires occurring in Combustible metals
such as Sodium, Potassium,
Magnesium, Zinc etc.
Special Dry Powders
such as Ternary
Eutectic Chloride
Fire Protection Facilities in
Petroleum Installation
Fire Protection Facilities
Fire Detection
Fire Fighting
Automatic Fire Detection System
 Smoke- Ionisation or Optical type
 Heat – Fixed temperature
temperature type
 Flame – UV or IR or UV/IR or IR3
 Heat And Smoke – Multiple criteria
Automatic Fire Detection System
 Detection system can be conventional type, addressable type and
analog addressable type.
 Selection of detection system is carried out based on specific
requirement of industry.
 Conventional  Detectors are in zones with max. 30 devices
 Addressable  Detectors are in loop
has an address.
with max. 198 devices per loop, each device
• Analog addressable •
Same as addressable with ability to send actual value of smoke
particle/ tepmarature etc. in the chamber of each detector
Automatic Fire Detection System
Advantages of analog addressable detectors over
conventional type of detectors
• Each device has an unique address and location
easily identified
can be
• All signals are verified and no chance of false alarm
• Exact location is pin pointed rather than area
• Single loop comprises of 198 devices connected by 2 core
• All devices connected to the fire alarm panel are scanned
by the panel all the time. All the devices report their
condition to the panel.
Automatic Fire Detection System
Modification is simpler. The
device only needs to be
added to the existingloop with a minimum change in panel
•History of each device can be seen by means of a printout.
•Easier maintenance.
•Lesser cable length.
•Lower power consumption.
•Compact & elegant design.
Automatic Fire Detection System
Block Diagram for Automatic Fire Detection and CO2 Release system
Automatic Fire Detection System
Automatic Fire Detection System
Schematic Layout of CO2 system
Fire Fighting System
Fire Water Reservoir
Pumping units
Fire water Network
Fire hydrants and foam cum water monitor
Water spray system
Foam pourer system
Automatic rim seal fire protection system
Fire Water Reservoir
 Open water reservoirs dedicated for storage of fire
water requirement of minimum 4 hrs. fire fighting
 Open top pond with RCC wall all sides.
 Above ground fire water tanks of adequate nos. to
meet the norm of 4 hr. continuous fire fighting.
 Coned roof or open top above ground tanks
Fire Water Reservoir
Above Ground Coned roof
Open top water
Fire Fighting Pumping units
 Motor or engine driven pumping units dedicated for
supply of fire water to
 Pumping units may be vertical turbine type or
horizontal type.
 No. of pumps shall be based on design pumping
 Standby pumping units for facilitating maintenance
without compromising safety of the installation.
Fire Fighting Pumping units
Horizontal Motor Driven
pump( Jockey)
Engine driven pump
Vertical Turbine type pump( Motor driven)
Fire Water Network
 MOC of network may be carbon steel or composite material or its
equivalent if used for fresh water.
 Incase of saline, brakish water, steel pipes, internally cement,
mortar lines or glass reinforced epoxy, coated or pipes made of
material suitable for the quality of water shall be used.
 Shall be laid above ground and under ground only in case of
crossings/other unavoidable circumstances.
 The fire water network shall be laid in closed loops as far as
possible to ensure multi-directional flow in the system.
 The hydraulic analysis of network shall be done at the design time.
Fire Water Network-Typical schematic
Fire Hydrants and Monitors
 Fire hydrants and foam cum water monitors to be provided on
the fire water network.
 Inter distance shall not be more than 30 m.
 Monitors shall be provided with individual isolation valve.
 Distance of hydrants from tanks or equipment under protection
shall not be less than 15 m.
 Monitors shall be provided with individual isolation valve.
Double headed fire
hydrant landing valves
Water Spray System
 Water spray system is provided for cooling of tank shell, piping
exposed to fire. System is provided for cooling of the structure
on fire and exposure protection of adjacent property.
 System consists of fixed piping with pipe fittings, isolation
valves, NRV and water spray nozzles.
 In case of tank and piping, water spray is directly impinged on
to the surface of tank or piping for cooling.
Water Spray System-Schematic
Water Curtain system in Building
Foam Pourer System
 Semi-fixed foam Pourer system
 Comprises of fixed pipings and pipe fittings, drain valves,
foam coupling, foam makers, foam pourer and deflector plate
on tank.
 Mobile Foam tender is required for actuating the system.
 Fixed foam pourer system( Manual/Automatic)
 Manual system comprises of fixed foam concentrate storage
shed, foam supply pumps, proportioning system, pipings and
pipe fittings, isolation valves, drain valves, foam coupling,
foam makers, foam pourer and deflector plate on tank.
 Automactic system requires motor operates valves at
different points and PLC for its actuation based on feed back
from automatic fire detection and alarm system.
Foam Pourer SystemSchematic
Foam Pourer System-Schematic
Foam Pourer System-Components/working
 Foam pourer system for tanks
 Semi-fixed foam Pourer system
 Fixed foam pourer system( Manual/Automatic)
 Foam pourer system for Engine driven mainline
pumping unit shed.( Automatic/Manual)
Foam Pourer System-Photographs
Foam Flooding system for Mainline engine shed
Detection system
Intrinsically safe Heat Detectors (HDs)
Intrinsically safe Ultra Violet / Infra Red flame detectors (UV/IR)
Addressable Manual Call Point (MCP)
Extinguishing system
Y-type strainer, Solenoid valve
Deluge valve, Bladder type foam tank (capacity 2000 litres)
Foam proportioning unit, Piping network for protected area
Foam cum water spray nozzles
Foam Pourer System
View of engine shed showing foam
solution piping and discharge nozzles
Deluge valve and bladder tank
Foam Flooding system in Mainline Pump shed
Foam sprinklers
Hydrant line
Foam bladder tank
Deluge Valve
6 “, 14000 lpm
6 ”, 5000 LPM
Typical Arrangement of Rim seal Units
over tank Roof
GA Of Foam Module Assembly
Discharge Nozzles
Rim Seal Fire Protection System
Rim Seal Protection System
Hydrocarbon Fire Fighting Techniques
• Reduction of fire load from the fire site by
transferring the combustible material, if possible.
• Containment of fire and fire fighting.
• Reducing domino effect of fire by providing
suitable exposure protection measures.
• Salvaging usables after fire fighting.
Hydrocarbon Fire Fighting Techniques
• Inter tank transfer of the product based on
availability of ullage in the installation.
• Operation of isolating devices to stop supply of
fuel to fire site.
• Localising the combustible product.
Hydrocarbon Fire Fighting Techniques
First aid
Use of first aid fire fighting extinguishers, fire
buckets, sand scoops, hose reel, water jel blanket
Use of hose lines and nozzles, fire beaters,
portable monitors, fixed monitors
Fire hydrant network, sprinkler system, fixed
foam flooding system in MLPS/Tanks, CO2 total
flooding, Halon system, Deluge system
(The above system may be fixed/semifixed/
Water tender, foam tender, DCP tender, crash
tender, rescue tender, Foam nurser, trolley
mounted monitors.
Dynamite blasts etc.
Emergency Response Plan-Statutory Requirements
 Factories Act- 1948 (amended in 1987)
 Section 41-B requires that an “On-Site Emergency
Plan” with detailed Disaster Control Measures by every
occupier of an installation involving hazardous process
shall be prepared and submitted to Factory
Statutory Requirement…. Contd
Manufacturer, Storage and Import of Hazardous
Chemicals Rules ( Amendments) Rules, 2000
Rule - 5 - Notification of major accident
Rule-7,8,9 - Notification of site and updation of same
Rule- 10- Preparation of safety report
Rule-11 - Updating of safety report
Rule-13- Preparation of On-site Emergency plan (By occupier)
Rule-14 - Preparation of Off - site Emergency plan ( By concerned
Statutory Requirement…. Contd
Rules on Chemical Accidents
Preparedness and Response)
This rule envisages a 4-tier crisis management system in the country
1. Central crisis group
2. State Crisis Group
3. District Crisis Group
4. Local Crisis Group.
General Guidelines for Drafting ERP
General Information about the Factory
 Brief information about the Company in general and Factory in Particular
Organisational Set Up
 Hierarchy in form of a tree showing the unit head and his subordinates up-to-the
Departmental / Sectional heads
 Shift wise manpower break up for A, B, C and G shift in tabular form
Product/ Bi-Product
 Name of Product and bi-product and their quantity per day / annum
Inventory of Raw material
 Names of raw-material showing their quantity / threshold quantity
Inventory of Hazardous substances
 Names of hazardous substances used as raw material showing their tank /
container capacity and thresh hold capacity
Hazardous substances / gases produced/ generated during the process
 Names of hazardous substances / gases produced/ generated during the process
with the quantities
General Guidelines for Drafting ERP
Identification of Hazard
 Hazards are mostly manifested in form of fire / explosion / toxic release
 Each anticipated hazard scenario associated in the factory be described along with
its assessment of impact of plant and locality
Identification of most credible hazard scenario
 The most credible ( max) hazard scenario be identified from among all anticipated
hazard scenario associated with the unit and its spread assessed through
dispersion model or other techniques
Plot Plan
 A plot plan be made showing the plant location, iso-risk contour around the hazard
zones, emergency control room, assembly points, emergency exit, roads and other
relevant details
Emergency Command centre
 A tree showing the emergency command structure, such as Works main controller,
Site Incident Controller, Combat team , Rescue team etc
Role of Key persons
 The role of key persons to be described in brief which should include members in
the command structures
General Guidelines for Drafting ERP
Action Plan for Emergency Response Plan
 The action of each person in the event of an emergency since it was
noticed by an employee to be described
Silent Hour Command Structure
 A command structure for the silent hour be prepared who should spring
into action during the silent hour till the members of the main command
structure reach the site
Activation and closing procedure
 The activation and closing procedure in the event of an emergency be
described in brief
Emergency Response Plan
To ensure that loss of life and injuries to persons are minimised
To ensure that property losses are minimum
Ensure that relief and rehabilitation measures are put into effective action
in the shortest possible time.
To ensure that potential loss due to prolonged shut down of facilities is
To effectively make use of available resources
Identification of organizational and operational details
Delineate functions of concerned departments & agencies for operational
Key Element of ERP
 Assessment of the size and nature of the events foreseen and
probability that might occur
 Formulation of the plan and liaison with outside authorities
including the emergency services.
 Procedures – Raising the alarm
within & outside pump station)
and communication
( Both
 Appointment of Key Personnel and defining their duties and
 Setting up of emergency control center
 Action on site
 Station shut down procedures
 Action off-site
Priorirty of handling emergency
Priority of Handling Disaster
Safe guard life
Safe guard property
Stop product leakage and contain
Extinguish any fire
Reclaim spilled product and clean the area
Probable Disaster
Leakage of oil & damage
Natural calamities
Man made
Response Procedure & Measure
 Response procedure for all emergency situations( Causes,
Consequences, control measures, Man power & Equipments)
 Organogram & Responsibilities
 Resources (Internal/External)
 Emergency Control Room
 Mutual Aid Scheme
 Name, Addresses, Contact numbers of concerned person/company
Team Responsibility
Team is responsible for
Handling of emergency at site
For supplying material/equipment/manpower
Plant operational control
Medical Services
General Support
Communication and media arrangement
Co-ordination with external agencies
All team leaders shall work under the command of an over
all commander.
Control Room
Central control room shall be equipped with
 Plant layout
 P&I diagram
 Operating parameters of equipment
 Organogram of ERP
 Meteorological data
 Mutual Aid Scheme
 Telephone Numbers of persons to be contacted
 Report forms
 List of Internal & External Resources
 Communication facilities
 Material Safety Data Sheet(MSDS)
Recovery Plan
Recovery Procedure
 Post - emergency Recovery
 Incident Investigation
 Damage Assessment
 Clean-up and Restoration
Effective Implementation
Effective Implementation
 Plan to be implemented through team work
 Periodical Mock Drills activating DMP
 Regular review and updation of plan
 Constant liasoning with Mutual Aid Members