Progressive Movement

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Transcript Progressive Movement

Progressive Movement

Responses to the Challenges brought about by Industrialization and Urbanization


 What problems did Progressive reformers hope to solve?

 What role did journalists and other writers play in the Progressive Movement?

 How did the Progressives work to help the urban poor?

 How did the Progressive reformers change local and state governments?

Progressivism: Reform Movement

 Began during T Roosevelt’s Administration.

 Ended in 1917 with the US entry into WWI.

 Spirit of Active Reform dominated national, state, and local politics.

 Wide range of issues  Middle class city dwellers  From the mid west and northeast.

Pressure for Reforms

 Why?

Negative effects of industrialization


Social Darwinism

Laissez Faire Economics

Lack of competition: high prices

Abuse of nation’s resources.

Poor working conditions

Poor living conditions

Large gap between rich and poor.

Rise of unions

Pressure for Reforms continued

Immigration kept wages low/rise of nativism

Mixed Response of Government

Unresponsive to the impact of industrialization and urbanization.

Courts did not support fair business practices


Reforms demanded by rising middle class

Increased power and influence of middle class.

  Educated class Progressives supported use of government power to bring about reform.

 Technology and science could improve the basic institutions of America: family, education, business and gov’t  Strengthening capitalism and they were against the rising tide of socialism.

 By pass the political parties.


 The Muckrakers and reform  Brought public attention to reform issues.

 Journalists, writers, photographers, and artists.

 Investigated and exposed corruption and injustice.

 Lincoln Steffens ( The Shame of the Cities ), Ida Tarbell ( History of Standard Oil ), Upton Sinclair ( The Jungle movie trailer?), Jacob Riis ( How the Other Half Lives )

Specific Areas of Concern

Poverty and living conditions

 Better living conditions through building codes  Social Gospel 

Settlement Houses

 Jane Addams Hull House  Henry Street Settlement: Lillian Wald  Provided child care, education, social activities, and employment help.

Specific Areas of Concern

 Peace Movement  Addams and Wald  Jeannette Rankin 1 st woman elected to congress  Addams 1931 Noble Peace Prize

Specific Areas of Concern

 Temperance and prohibition  Began in the 1820s  1874 Women’s Christian Temperance Union.

 1920 18 th amendment

Specific Areas of Concern

 Women’s Movement  1848 Seneca Falls NY  Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were the radicals.

 Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell were the moderates.

 1900s Carrie Chapmen Catt changes strategy.

 19 Amendment 1920

Specific Areas of Concern

 Birth Control  Margaret Sanger  Planned Parenthood Federation  Education for Women  100,000 women in college by the 1900s.

 Rights for Jews  Anti-Defamation League

Specific Areas of Concern

 African Americans  Lynchings  Booker T Washington: vocational training  Policy called accommodation  W.E.B. DuBois: more radical than BTW  Niagara Movement  NAACP: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People  Marcus Garvey: separatist  Ida B. Wells: journalist

Progressivism and Government

 1 st concentrated their efforts on local governments.

 Elect Progressive Mayors but also needed to change the way government ran.

 Popular in small and medium sized cities.

 City Commissioner Plan  City manager Plan

Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal

 Many reforms during his administration.

 1 st of the Progressive Presidents (William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson).

 Youngest man to become president  1901 William McKinley is assassinated  Elected in 1904  Used the power of the Presidency to deal with social and economic problems

Cities respond to Urban Problems

 Transportation systems, water and sewage, sanitation, other utilities.

 Modernizing Police and Fire Departments.

 Constructing new government buildings.

 Building Libraries and museums

Reform of State Government

 Limited the control of state controlled boss politics.

 Limited powerful business interests.

 To protect gains at the local level reform was needed at the state and federal levels.

 Needed to increase citizen participation in government.

State reforms

 Secret ballots  Initiative  Referendum  Recall  Direct primary  Direct Election of Senators (1913) 17 th Amendment.

 Role of third parties

State, Social and Environmental Reform

 Wisconsin Model  Robert M. La Follette  Regulate railroads, lobbying, banking  Civil service reforms  Reform tax system  Workmen’s compensation  Factory inspections  Teddy Roosevelt  New State Tenement Commission

Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal

 Youngest President to take office  1 st of three Progressive presidents( William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson)  Stewardship: leading the nation in the public interest, like a supervisor or manager.

 Square Deal: many reforms during his administration


 Consumer Protection  Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act (

The Jungle

)  Regulation of Business  Hepburn Act 1906 Regulation of Railroad rates. Strengthened the ICC. Also expanded power to include regulation of pipelines, ferries, bridges and terminals.


        Trust-busting Good and bad trusts.

Northern Securities Case: Pacific Northwest Railroads. Dissolved Beef Trust: Swift and Company v. the United States .

Labor Reforms: The Anthracite Coal Strike: United Mine Workers.

Employers’ Liability Act of 1906: provided accident insurance for interstate railroad workers. And in Washington D.C.

Working Hours:

Lockner v. New York ( no limiting working hours) Muller v Oregon ( women working) 10 hour work day


 Roosevelt was a naturalist  Influenced by Gifford Pinchot and John Muir.

 Forest Reserve Act of 1891/US Forest Service /150 Million Acres.

 National Reclamation Act of 1902

Progressivism Under Taft

 1909 William Howard Taft is elected President.

 Twice as many lawsuits  Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States.

 Rule of reason to the Sherman Antitrust Act  Mann Elkins act of 1910/ICC/ control telephone and telegraph.

 Payne –Aldrich Act of 1909 raise tariffs

Woodrow Wilson and the New freedom

 Democrat 1912  Competition in the marketplace through enforcement of antitrust laws.

 Underwood Tariff Act: lowered tariffs/Civil War  1913 16 th Amendment Graduated Income tax. 6% v 1%  Federal Reserve System created.

Federal Reserve System

 12 Districts, each with a Federal reserve Bank.

 The Federal Government could now:  Issue sound currency.

 Control the amt of money in circulation.

 Control interest rates.

 Shift money from one bank to another when needed.

Negative Aspects of the Progressive Period

        Rights of African Americans do not improve..

Woodrow Wilson enact separate facilities for blacks in Federal Government buildings.

 Jim Crows are still in existence (

Plessy v Ferguson

) separate but equal.

Women are still treated like second class citizens.

Unequal education still exists for all races Child labor.

No minimum wage, no maximum work week, Prohibition….Organized Crime No anti-lynching laws

Business Regulation

    Federal Trade Commission Act Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914  Price fixing  Buying stock in competing companies.

 Addams Act of 1916 8 hour work day for workers on railroads and in interstate commerce.

Federal Farm Loan Act 1916 Keating – Owen Child Labor Act:  Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional. Hammer v Dagenhart  19 th Amendment 1920 women the right to vote.

Causes of the Progressive Movement Growth of industry The Progressive Movement Work of Muckrakers Growth of cities


•Direct election of Senators.

•Party primaries.

•Votes for women.


•Laws protecting Workers.

•Settlement houses •Birth control •Child labor laws •consumer protection laws


•Conservation of land and water.

•Regulation of business •Lower tariffs •Income tax •Federal Reserve

Progressive Movement Protect Social Welfare

Pure Food and Drug Act

Meat Inspection Act

Conservation projects

Settlement House Movement

Formation of NAACP

Mandatory Education Promote Moral Development


18 th Amendment

Social Gospel Movement Create Economic Reform

Underwood tariff

Federal Reserve System

Clayton Antitrust Act

Hepburn Act

16 th Amendment

Federal Trade Commission

Regulate public utilities Foster Efficiency In Government

17 th &18 th Amendment

Civil Service reform

Secret Ballot

Direct Primaries



City commission

City manager

Progressive Pyramid National 16-19 Amendments Pure food and Drug Act Meat Inspection Act Underwood Tariff, Clayton Antitrust Act FTC, Federal Reserve Bank, Hepburn Act, NAACP, Forest Reserve Act State

Secret Ballot, Initiative, referendum, recall, direct primaries, direct election of senators


City Commission, city manager, regulation of public utilities, city beautification, settlement houses

Muckrakers: uncover corruption

Lincoln Steffens

The Shame of the Cities

Corrupt politicians Upton Sinclair

The Jungle

Unhealthy conditions in the Meat packing industry Frank Norris

The Octopus

Corrupt railroad operators & California Wheat farmers Ida Tarbel

History of the Standard Oil Company

John D. Rockefeller’s monopoly