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Chapter 18

Three Operating Systems

The Architecture of Computer Hardware and Systems Software: An Information Technology Approach 3rd Edition, Irv Englander John Wiley and Sons

2003 Wilson Wong, Bentley College Linda Senne, Bentley College

Three Operating Systems

   Microsoft Windows 2000/XP UNIX and Linux IBM zSeries z/OS Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-2

Microsoft Windows 2000/XP

     Design Goals Operating System Features User Environment Desktop Components Windows 2000/XP Architecture   Overview System Block Diagram  Logical Memory Map Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-3

Design Goals

     Extensibility  Object-based modular design Portability  Written in C and C++ to facilitate porting to other CPUs Reliability  Kernel architecture design to protect from internal errors and buggy application programs Downward compatibility  Compatible with earlier versions of Windows and DOS Scalability and Performance  Supports symmetric multiprocessing 18-4 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

Operating System Features

       Single user 32-bit or 64-bit, pre-emptive multi-tasking operating system Powerful GUI that behaves consistently for local, network, and Internet use Support for new capabilities  Multimedia, plug-and-play hardware, electrical power conservation Manageable and secure file system with built-in recoverability options and is downwardly compatible API that provides a wide range of services to simplify application development and ensure consistency Built-in networking and a new distributed file system Network server capabilities Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-5

User Environment

  Simple for novice, powerful for advanced user Tools, operations and applications that use the API behave in a consistent manner    Extensive context-sensitive help User’s system parameters are modifiable  Applications and users have access to the same services and interface features Tools and operations perform reasonably and in an intuitive manner 18-6 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

Desktop Components

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-7

Windows 2000/XP Architecture

   Modified microkernel-based User mode  Environmental subsystems  Expose OS services to the user through an API  System support processes  Logon and user session management  Server processes Protected (kernel) mode    Hardware abstraction layer Kernel Executive layer Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-8

Executive Layer

 Object manager  Provides standardized interface for objects     Process manager Virtual memory manager I/O manager Security reference monitor   All protected objects are monitored Enforces validation procedures and audits  Local Procedure Call (LPC)  Control of all service requests and interprocess activities  Windowing and Graphics System   Manages Windows graphics Provides Windows screen interface tools Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-9

Overview of Windows 2000

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-10

System Block Diagram

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-11

Logical Memory Map

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-12

UNIX and Linux

     Design Goals Pioneering Design Features Operating System Features User Environment General Organization  Kernel operations Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-13

Design Goals

       Easy-to-use, interactive, powerful, and flexible interface Powerful programming tools  Compilers and associated tools Use of small, simple utility programs to perform tasks and to construct more complex applications Small and simple kernel together with a separate interface shell Logical file system Multi-tasking and multiuser capabilities Simple system portability 18-14 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

Pioneering OS Design Features

    Process creation and control Separate shell for user interface Hierarchical directory file system Ability to combine small independent software modules to accomplish a more complex task 18-15 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

Operating System Features

 Preemptive multitasking with multiuser capability, automatic scheduling, and background execution      User shells that provide an interactive interface, commands, and programming tools Interactive process creation and management Hierarchical, tree-based file system Kernel Network administration tools 18-16 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

User Environment

     Login    User name and password Start-up file for user environment customizations System, group, and user protections are set Interface shells  Bourne shell, C shell, and Korn shell are the most commonly used Command line prompt X-Windows interface Logins to remote UNIX computers 18-17 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

General Organization of a UNIX System

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-18

Kernel Operations

     Virtual storage and memory management Process management File management I/O management Networking and communication Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-19

Virtual Address Space for a Process

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-20

IBM zSeries z/OS

     Design Goals Operating System Services User Environment User Interfaces MVS Organization   Virtual Memory Map for a Task Data Management Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-21

Design Goals

    Maximize system performance and availability  Maximize amount of processing by providing support for execution of batch programs Minimize operator support effort Reliability Security 18-22 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

Virtual File System vs.

Socket Layered Structure

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-23

Operating System Services

            Sophisticated resource allocation services and workload management Data set management services Job and task management Virtual storage operation and management Network services Time-sharing support System resource logging, auditing and accounting Error detection, recovery, and logging Reassignment of tasks and data to other resources in the event of an error or failure System support programs and facilities Security services Large-scale cluster support Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-24

User Environment

       BCP, Base Control Program JCL, Job Control Language TSO, Time Sharing Option  Used for program development and job preparation JES, Job Entry Subsystem  Job submissions ISPF, Interactive System Productivity Facility  Menu-driven facility that serves as an extension to TSO CICS, Customer Information Control System  Application enabler that provides services to application programs that have been developed to work with it UNIX Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-25

User Interfaces

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-26

MVS Organization

Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-27

Virtual Memory Map for a Task

18-28 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

Data Management

  Data sets    z/OS files Sequential, random, or indexed sequential access Fixed or variable size  Partitioned   Directory Members - group of independent, related records Catalogs  z/OS directories    Master catalog for the system VTOC – catalog for a DASD (disk) device User catalog has an indexed entry in the master catalog Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems 18-29

Steps in Location of a Data Set

18-30 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems

Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons

All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the permissions Department, John Wiley & Songs, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.” 18-31 Chapter 18 Three Operating Systems