0.0_CH 5 THE PRAIRIES
0.0_CH 5 THE PRAIRIES
THE METIS FLEE WESTWARD
The Manitoba Act - 1870.
Fr. & Eng. = official languages.
Two ed. Systems
Protestant & Catholic.
1.4 million acres for Metis
1870 Man. Act -> Most of it was
based on the Metis List of Rights
Frustrated Metis moved West
- MacDonald’s peace agents were cruel to Metis.
- Land ownership & scrip.
- $160 or quarter section of land
($1 per acre).
- Metis did not understand (Rules - Ex. cultivation & lotteries )
and land speculators took
advantage at low prices.
-Threatened Metis with prison.
Result - Many Metis left Manitoba and moved further west.
THE METIS IN THE NORTHWEST
Tried to recreate Red River further
Seigneural land patterns, Catholic
churches, farming, buffalo, & HBC.
By 1870 problems arose.
Bison declined - Laws of St. Laurent.
Food & pemmican/income became
Magistrate Clarke appointed.
He ran the HBC & laws of the N.West.
Conflict of interest????
HBC always got priority over Metis.
ie. Revoked Laws of St. Laurent
Why did US gov’t encourage the
decimation of the buffalo?
By 1873, the Canadian government established
the North West Mounted Police to patrol the
REASONS FOR THE NWMP
-Whisky traders from the US, were coming
north and used cheap liquor to take
advantage of the Native peoples.
-It was feared the US would work its way north
and assimilate Canada’s Northwest.
- Did not want “Wild West” of the USA.
30 Assinboine killed
by Whiskey traders
caused outrage in
Treaties with the Native Peoples
Settlement of the west would not be possible
without treaties and 1896 Indian Act
Treaty conditions were often ignored.
(See next slide).
Unkept promises =>Farm equipment, supplies,
Reserve land often small & poor land.
Gov’t dependency increased.
7 treaties signed.
Mcdonald’s ‘Sea to Sea’
dream needed land.
1876 Indian Act
1876 = Indian Act
Natives to live on reserves.
Children to attend residential schools.
Propaganda Video vs. Reality Video
2008 Harper gave
Missionaries sent to encourage treaties.
THE NORTHWEST REBELLION
REASONS THE METIS WERE FRUSTRATED.
Could not re-create the Red River Settlement.
Troubles gaining land titles in Red River & the Northwest.
Canadian gov’t had its own agenda –> Natives not part of treaty process.
Prairie land was to pay off RR and debts.
Gov’t slashed “Indian Dept.”
Promised farm/land aid never
Blackmail => “Difficult Indians”
received no food relief.
By 1884, many First Nations
- Status under Indian Act unclear
NORTH WEST REBELLION RIEL RETURNS
In 1884, Riel returned from the US.
The Metis convinced Riel to leave his teaching
job and return to Canada to fight for his people.
Riel returned with peaceful intentions and
created the Metis Bill of Rights.
By March of 1885, Riel knew the Metis
could not achieve rights peacefully.
“Justice commands us to take up arms”
- DUCK LAKE
- FISH CREEK
ROLE OF THE FIRST NATIONS
The Cree supported the Metis and
fought with them.
The Blackfoot opted not to fight as Chief
Crowfoot felt change was inevitable & he
wanted the best deal possible for his people.
Who was being most loyal to
By May, Riel was arrested and Dumont
had escaped to the US.
Riel’s lawyers recommended he plead
Riel refused as went against everything
he had been fighting for.
Riel was hanged Nov. 16, 1885.
Riel’s jury - What emotion do
THE NATIONAL DREAM
CANADA - “A SEA TO SEA NATION”
REASONS FOR A RAILWAY
- MacDonald promised BC a transcontinental
RR if we joined Canada.
- Create a British North American nation
that would rival the US.
-To prevent the possibility of
assimilation by the US.
MacDonald looked for people
willing to build and pay for such a
huge expenditure. “Build it and we
will make it worth your while later.”
J. A. MacDonald
THE NATIONAL DREAM
THE PACIFIC SCANDAL - MacDonald
Promised Sir Hugh Allen the RR contract
If he paid for his election campaign.
MacDonald got caught and lost election.
Alexander Mackenzie (Liberal)
-won election but faced world depression.
-- hated RR idea but allowed Fleming
- alienated BC.
MacDonald elected back
with his NATIONAL POLICY.
- Western Settlement
- The CPR
SIR HUGH ALLEN
MORE POLITICAL SCANDALS
Chretien Sponsorship Scandal
Ford – Crack/DUI/Booze
Clarke – Renovation $
DUI - Hawaii
Clinton - Sex
THE CPR SYNDICATE
George Stephen - Bank of Montreal
Donald Smith - HBC
James J. Hill - US Railways
THE DEAL - $25 million
- 25 million acre land grant
- monopoly on RR. For 20 yrs.
- no land tax until sold.
RR TO BE COMPLETED IN 10 YRS.
NOTE - The Syndicate changed the route to
VAN HORNE assume total control & avoid land speculators.
Construction started slow and William Van Horne
was hired to speed things up.
NOTE - Van Horne was paid $20 000 / yr. when average.
wage was $400 /yr.
Equivalent = $1 000 000 / yr. today.
CPR SYNDICATE CHANGES ROUTE
BUILDING THE CPR
Van Horne made deadlines (completed in 1885) but $ ran out.
Canadian gov’t gave $22.5 million to finish.
Van Horne cut corners - ie. temp. bridges & ignored safety grades.
Terrible work & living conditions.
Bugs, poor diets, filthy bedding, leaks, danger, no plumbing.
Over 35 000 ‘Navvies’
needed to finish the RR.
1885 Rebellion transported
troops & showed value of RR.
=> justified more $ to finish.
THE LAST SPIKE
NOV. 7, 1885
A THOUGHT TO PONDER!
The expansion of Canada came with a great deal
Treatment of the First Nation people.
Catering toEastern Business
Settling the West
U.S. Manifest Destiny
Rockies - Rogers Pass