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Transcript 20130423213828320

Traditional Chinese Painting
Forms & Subjects
Schools & Techniques
Tools & Materials
Warming up
• Chinese calligraphy (Brush calligraphy) is an
art unique to Asian cultures. Shu
(calligraphy), Hua (painting), Qin (a string
musical instrument), and Qi (a strategic
board game) are the four basic skills and
disciplines of the Chinese literati. Regarded
as the most abstract and sublime form of art
in Chinese culture
• In a broad sense, the Chinese Painting was
incipiently(早期地) referred to as the Chinesestyle painting in contrast to the Western
contemporaries, taking into account the scroll(卷
轴) painting, the mural painting(壁画), the
engraved painting, the Spring Festival painting
and other sorts; in a grimmer sense herein, it
was meant the unequaled style of painting
formulated by means of the Chinese writing
brush and ink according to the long-established
• Chinese traditional painting is highly
regarded throughout the world for its theory,
expression, and techniques. According to the
means of expression, Chinese painting can be
divided into two categories: the freehand( xieyi
写意) school and the meticulous ( gongbi工
笔) school. The xieyi school is marked by
exaggerated forms and freehand brush work.
The gongbi school is characterized by close
attention to detail and fine brush work.
Different from Western paintings, a Chinese painting is
not restricted by the focal point(焦点) in its
perspective. The artist may paint on a long and narrow
piece of paper or silk all the scenes along the Yangtse
River. It can be said that the adoption of shifting
perspective is one of the characteristics of Chinese
Why do the Chinese artists emphasize the shifting
perspective? They want to break away from the
restrictions of time and space and to include in their
pictures both things which are far and things which are
near. Also, the artists find that in life people view their
surroundings from a mobile focal point. As one walks
along a river or in a garden, one sees everything on the
way. The shifting perspective enables the artist to
express freely what he wants.
Chinese calligraphy and Chinese painting
are closely related because lines are used in
both. Chinese people have turned simple lines
into a highly-developed form of art. Lines are
used not only to draw contours (外形)but to
express the artist's concepts and feelings. For
different subjects and different purposes a
variety of lines are used. They may be straight or
curved, hard or soft, thick or thin, pale or dark,
and the ink may be dry or running. The use of
lines and strokes is one of the elements that give
Chinese painting its unique qualities.
Traditional Chinese painting is a combination
in the same picture of the arts of poetry,
calligraphy, painting, and seal engraving. In
ancient times most artists were poets and
calligraphers. Su Dongpo (1037-1101), Ni Yunlin
(1306-1374), and Dong Qichang (1555-1636)
were such artists. To the Chinese, "painting in
poetry and poetry in painting" has been one of the
criteria for excellent works of art. Inscriptions and
seal impressions help to explain the painter's
ideas and sentiments and also add decorative
beauty to the painting. For Chinese graphic art,
poetry, calligraphy, painting, and seal engraving
are necessary parts, which supplement and
enrich one another.
Chinese traditional painting dates
back to the Neolithic Period(新石器时代)
about six thousand years ago. The
colored pottery with painted animals, fish,
deer, and frogs excavated in the 1920s
indicate that during the Neolithic Period
the Chinese had already started to use
brushes to paint.
Chinese Painting in Primitive Period
• The ancient Chinese painted or drew
patterns of flowers and plants or
figures of animals on pottery, which
formed the art of the most primitive
Chinese Painting in Qin and Han dynasties
• In Qin and Han dynasties, the artistic skills of
painting saw a further improvement. Surviving
Han paintings include mainly tomb(墓碑)
paintings and colored paintings on clay and
Chinese Painting in
Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern periods
• Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern periods
experienced great development and changes in
Chinese painting. Buddhist painting was
improved greatly with the spread of Buddhism
and dominated much of the achievements at
these periods. Meanwhile, painting techniques
advanced and significant achievement was
made in figure painting(人物画). Gu Kai zhi(346407),and his works are the representatives
of this period.
Chinese Painting in the Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty (618-907) witnessed the
prosperity of figure painting, where the most
outstanding painters were Zhang Xuan(张萱)and
Zhou Fang(周昉 ). Their paintings, depicting the
life of noble women and court ladies, exerted an
eternal influence on the development of shi nu
hua() (painting of beauties), which comprise an
important branch of traditional Chinese painting
Chinese Painting in the Five Dynasties
Beginning in the Five Dynasties (907-960),
each dynasty set up an art academy that
gathered together the best painters throughout
China. Academy members, who were on the
government payroll and wore official uniforms,
drew portraits of emperors, nobles and
aristocrats that depicted their daily lives. The
system proved conducive to the development of
painting. The succeeding Song Dynasty (9601127) developed such academies into the
Imperial Art Academy.
Paintings in the Song Dynasty
• During the Song Dynasty, The emperors gave
support to painting and as a result enjoyed
wide popularity, with a variety of
paintings flourishing. A royal painting
academy was established, and many fine
artists were patronized(支持) by the court.
Bird and flower themes were always popular
with the royal family. The Song period is
best known, however, for landscape painting,
and then many painting masters were very
active both in the Northern Song and the
Southern Song.
Four Great Masters in Song Dynasty:
• Li Tang (李唐)was a master of monumental
style who painted with a wrinkle method and
axe-cut strokes(釜劈皴), which ultimately
became a unique feature of academic
landscape painting.
• Liu Songnian(刘松年) excelled in
landscape painting using the blue-and-green
• Ma Yuan(马远) and Xia Gui(夏圭)
developed a big wrinkle method under the
influence of Li Tang, which eventually
formed a landscape painting style known as
the Ma-Xia school.
Chinese Painting in the Yuan Dynasty
• During the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) the
“Four Great Painters” -- Huang Gongwang,
Ni Zan, Wu Zhen and Wang Meng (黄公望、
倪瓒、吴镇、王蒙) -- represented the
highest level of landscape painting. Their
works immensely influenced landscape
painting of the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing
(1644-1911) dynasties.
Chinese Painting in the Ming Dynasty
• At the beginning of Ming dynasty, the
court continued to patronize a royal
painting academy, but the individual
styles were restrained. The court
painters were not free to follow
their own inclinations. Therefore,
some of them revived the colorful
style of flower-and-bird painting
popular at the court of Song and made
it grander(更加华丽) and more
decorative in conformity with the
court taste of Ming.
Painting in the Ming Dynasty
• Outside the court, many painters practiced
a freer, less restrained form of painting
and formed different schools of distinctive
styles: the Zhejiang School(浙派)
represented by Dai Jin(戴进), the
Jiangxia School(江夏派)by Wu Wei(吴伟),
the Songjiang School(松江派)by Dong
Qichang(董其昌)and Four Schools of Wu(吴
门四派), which included many famous
painters such as the Four Great Masters of
Ming(明朝四大家) Shen Zhou(沈周), Wen
Zhengming(文徵明), Tang Yin(唐寅) and
Qiu Ying(仇英).
Chinese Painting In
Qing Dynasty
In Qing Dynasty, some of the most
prominent groups of painters were the Eight
Masters in Jinling(金陵八家), the Eight
Eccentrics of Yangzhou(扬州八怪), and the
Shanghai Group. The greatest of Jinling was
Gong Xian(龚贤), whose paintings are
different for the strong effects of
chiaroscuro (明暗对比法), a contrastive
distribution of light and shade. The Eight
Eccentrics of Yangzhou, represented by
Zheng Banqiao(郑板桥)and Jin Nong(金农),
ignored the tradition and adopted a more
individual attitude in painting.
Chinese Painting in Modern Times
• By the end of the Qing Dynasty and the
beginning of the Republic of China, Shanghai,
which gave birth to the Shanghai Painting
School, had become the most prosperous
commercial city and a gathering place for
numerous painters. Following the spirit of the
Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou, the Shanghai
School played a vital role in the transition of
Chinese traditional painting from a classical art
form to a modern one.
The May 4th Movement of 1919, or the New Culture
Movement, inspired the Chinese to learn from western
art and introduce it to China. Many outstanding painters,
led by Xu Beihong, emerged, whose paintings
recognized a perfect merging of the merits of both
Chinese and Western styles, absorbing western
classicism, romanticism and impressionism. Other great
painters of this period include Qi Baishi(齐白石), Huang
Beihong (黄悲鸿) and Zhang Daqian(张大千). Oil
painting, a western art, was introduced to China in the
17th century and gained popularity in the early 20th
century. In the 1980s Chinese oil painting boomed.
Popular folk painting
• Chinese New Year pictures pinned up on doors,
room walls and windows on the Chinese New
Year to invite heavenly blessings and ward off
disasters and evil spirits - which dates back to
the Qin and Han dynasties. Thanks to the
invention of block printing, folk painting became
popular in the Song Dynasty and reached its
zenith of sophistication in the Qing. Woodcuts
have become increasingly diverse in style,
variety, theme and artistic form since the early
Forms & Subjects
The principal forms of traditional Chinese
painting are
hanging scroll挂轴,
album of paintings画册,
fan surface 扇面and
long horizontal scroll.
• Hanging scrolls are both
horizontal and vertical(横
披/立轴). They are
mounted and hung on the
• For an album of paintings
the artist paints on a
certain size of xuan paper,
then binds a number of
paintings into an album,
convenient for storage.
• The surface of both folding fans and round fans
is painted. Before people had electric fans or airconditioning, they used fans made of bamboo
strips pasted with paper or silk. Artists painted
the fan's surface as recreation. In time this
developed into a form of painting that has been
handed down to the present. Folding fans,
usually made of paper, are used by men, while
round fans, generally of silk, are used by women.
When artists paint on the silk, the fan appears
fine and elegant.
• The long horizontal scroll is also called a hand
scroll(手卷). It is less than fifty centimetres
high, but several to a hundred metres long.
Pictures on long horizontal scrolls are not
restricted as to time, whether seasons or
decades. A hundred or a thousand human
figures can be portrayed in one painting. After
being mounted, it can be appreciated section by
section. Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival
(Qingming Festival, when Chinese people visit
ancestral tombs, falls on April 5 or 6 each year)
is a famous horizontal scroll from the Song
Dynasty (960 -1279). The painting is 52.5
centimetres long.
Traditional Chinese paintings can be classified
according to subject matter into
• figure paintings,
• landscapes and
• flower-and-bird paintings.
Landscapes represent a major category in
traditional Chinese painting, mainly depicting the
natural scenery of mountains and rivers.
by Tang Yin
By Guan Shanyue
(Ming Dynasty)
By Qi Baishi
Schools & Techniques
The technique of traditional Chinese
painting is divided into two major styles:
• meticulous (gongbi工笔) and
• freehand (xieyi写意).
Meticulous style requires great care and
grace; the strict composition has fine
elaboration. The effect is highly decorative.
Freehand style generalizes shapes and
displays rich brushwork and ink technique.
周子意的仕女图(写意 )
• Brush techniques
• The use of ink
• The use of color
Brush techniques
• Lines play a decisive role in the formation of images in
traditional Chinese painting, and the variations in lines
are, in the main, determined by the method of using the
brush. In general, the brush can be divided into three
parts: tip, belly and root. Their properties and functions
differ from one another. Sometimes you paint with the tip
of the brush, as light as gossamer on the paper.
Sometime^ you press the root of the brush heavily on the
paper. Sometimes you use the belly of the brush to bring
out charms full of vitality. There are also times you use
several parts of the brush in one stroke. This depends
entirely on how flexibly you use your brush to present an
object. If you succeed, your lines will be vivid and
forceful, and you will bring out the spiritual
characteristics of the object you're portraying.
Tools & Materials
Ink and Pigments
Paper and silk
Ink Slab
Color-mixing tray
Brush wash utensil
• There are three types of brushes used in
traditional Chinese painting: soft, stiff, and
• The soft brush is made mainly of fleece, with the
addition of bird feathers. It absorbs a large
amount of water and is suitable for painting
flowers and leaves and applying water and
colours. For instance, there are large and small
soft ti brushes, large tai brushes for painting
wider objects such as bamboo, and colouring
• The stiff brush is made mainly of weasel hair.
The artist uses a stiff brush to give the effect of
strength, elasticity and resilience(弹力). It is
convenient for contour(轮廓) lines or painting
hills, rocks or tree trunks. Such brushes include
brushes for painting the veins of leaves and
folds of garments, large and small brushes for
calligraphy and painting, brushes for painting
plum blossoms and large lanzhu brushes for
drawing the bold lines(粗线) of bamboo or
• The mixed brush is a mixture of soft fleece
and weasel hair. The artist uses this kind
of brush for the combined effect of
strength and grace. For instance, the
baiyun brush, made of a mixture of soft
fleece and stiff weasel hair, can also be
used for painting flowers and leaves. In
addition, there are specially made stiff
brushes, such as a brush made of short
pig bristles or mouse whiskers.
• Choosing the right brush for painting depends
on your requirements or the circumstances in
which you are painting. It is better for beginners
to use the mixed brush. When buying brushes, it
is better to buy in special stores for the four
treasures of the study, as they have a complete
assortment. Before you start to use a new brush,
soak it in cold or warm water. After using the
brush, you must wash it clean, squeeze it dry,
arrange the brush hair neatly and hang the
brush up. The brush can then be used for a long
Ink and Pigments(颜料)
• The ink used for painting is made by grinding an ink stick
on an ink slab. You can also buy prepared ink in bottles.
The ink sticks consist of pine soot ink and tung-oil-soot
ink. In general, tung-oil-soot ink is used, because it is of
fine quality and the black has a bluish-purple lustre. Ink
sticks with light glue are of top quality. Ink sticks made
long ago that have lost their luster (光泽) and brightness
should not be used. Pine-soot ink, which is black but
lusterless, is used only occasionally when painting birds
or butterflies in meticulous style. It may also be used
when you wish a special effect. Ink sticks should be well
protected against dampness, or sun, so that the glue will
not be lost and the stick will not become dry and cracked.
• Pigments are used in addition to ink for coloring in
Chinese painting. They are mixed with water, instead of
oil. Pigments for Chinese painting are classified as
transparent or opaque. Transparent colors are made with
plant pigments, including mainly vermillion, gamboge (橙
黄色), ochre(赭色), cyanine(青蓝), rouge(胭脂) and
carmine(深红色). Opaque colors, made mainly of
minerals, are also called mineral colors, which include
mineral blue, mineral green, titanium white(钛白),
mineral yellow and cinnabar(朱红). Mineral colors
have strong covering capacity, but fade easily. Hence, it
is necessary to mix mineral colors with an appropriate
amount of liquid glue (animal and plant glue)
• In addition, there are gold and silver powder,
made of real gold and silver. Pigment stores in
China‘s Suzhou add glue to gold and silver foil
(银箔), grind them into a fine paste and glue
them onto a small porcelain cup, hence the
name, gold or silver cup. You can use a clean
brush soaked in water to dip up the gold powder
in the cup. Gold and silver powder are used
mainly to trace leaf veins and on metal objects,
giving a sense of splendor in green and gold.
However, they are rarely used.
Paper and silk
• Xuan paper is the special material for traditional Chinese
painting. It is so called because it is produced at
Xuancheng in Jing County, An-hui Province.
• Xuan paper may be processed or unprocessed.
Unprocessed xuan paper absorbs moisture and ink, and
colours sink in easily when water is added. When using
this kind of paper, pay attention to the moisture of the
brush and the speed with which you move the brush. If
there is too much moisture and you move the brush too
slowly, ink and colors will sink in easily.
• Processed paper (treated with the proper amount of
soybean milk or liquid glue) does not let ink and colours
sink in. This kind of paper is suitable for doing paintings in
the meticulous style.
• Chinese artists also like to paint on silk fabric. In general, it
is used after being treated and is used mostly for paintings
in the meticulous style. Raw silk is used for freehand
Ink Slab
• The ink slab is the tool for grinding the ink stick.
A good ink slab is a beautiful handicraft. Many
materials are used for ink slabs. The most
famous are duan stone, produced at Duanxi in
Zhaoq-ing, Guangdong Province, and xie stone,
produced at Longweishan (Dragon Tail Hill) in
Wuyuan County, Jiangxi Province. Both are
aqueous rock, fine, even and hard in texture. It is
easy to grind the ink fine, even and thick, and
the ink does not dry quickly. Ink slab for painting
should be large (20 to 26 cm in diameter) and
deep and have a lid to keep it clean. It can be
either square or round.
Color-mixing tray
• This is a dish or plate for mixing colours.
White porcelain is best, because the white
reflects colourscorrectly. It is not suitable
to use a coloured dish or plate or one with
decorative designs to mix colours.
Colour-mixing box(dish), and brushwashing jar.
Brush wash untensil
• This is equipment for washing brushes. It
can be made of glass, porcelain or
enamelware. It holds water for washing
brushes. Its mouth should be wide,
smooth and not rough, so that it will not
impair the brush's hair.
• Gu Kaizhi -- Originator of Painting (East Jin
•Wu Daozi, Sage in Chinese Painting
Gu Kaizhi(顾恺之)
• Gu Kai zhi(346-407), was a painter of the
Eastern Jin Dynasty. He was so talented
thathe was not only good at poems but also
at painting, especially the paintings of
portraits, historical figures, birds,
animals and landscapes as well. He is
considered by many the greatest and the
father of landscape painting (山水画).
Admonitions of the Instructress to the Palace Ladies
His famous works
Ode to the Luo Goddess(洛神赋图)
Ladies of Virtues(列女仁智图)
• Gu was born into an official family in Wuxi,
Jiangsu Province and served as a
government officer at a young age. Having
toured many beautiful places, Gu was
proficient in writing poetry and essays;
Chinese art history abounds in anecdotes
about him.
• When the construction of a temple was planned
for Jiankang (Nanjing) and the monks and abbot
could not collect enough money to build it, a
young man offered to donate a large sum of
money. He suggested he would draw a picture of
the Buddha on the wall and, in the process,
collect donations from curious passersby. For
three consecutive days, thousands of people
flocked to see the young man at work. By adding
the final touches to the picture, the Buddha
seemed to come alive, and the viewers cheered
and applauded the young man's artistry. Hence,
the money needed for the consummate
construction of the temple was obtained.
• The young man who paid great attention to the details
that revealed the characteristics of his subjects was
none other than Gu Kaizhi.
Gu was once was asked to paint Pei Kai's portrait, a man
with three, long, fine hairs on his face that had been
ignored by other painters. Gu laid great emphasis on the
three hairs, and Pei was very satisfied. Another time, Gu
painted a man named Xie Kun standing in the midst of
mountains and rocks. When asked the reason for the
setting, Gu explained that Xie loved to travel and see
beautiful mountains and rivers. Such stories demonstrate
Gu's skill of creating atmospheres that enhanced the
characteristics of his subjects.
Ode to the Luo Goddess(洛神赋图)
• The theme of the Luoshen Appraisal Painting
(luo shen fu) was drawn from the article,
Luoshen Appraisal, written by Cao Zhi, son of
the Wei Emperor Cao Cao. The painting depicts
the meeting between Cao Zhi and the Goddess
Luoshen at Luoshui River, vividly capturing the
mood of their first meeting and eventual
separation. Gu emphasized his subjects'
expressions, with the stones, mountains and
trees having an ornamental purpose. Gu's
paintings, which greatly influenced later
traditional Chinese paintings, are similar in style
to the Dunhuang murals.
Admonitions of the Instructress to the
Palace Ladies (女史箴图)
• Height:25cm
• Length:249.5 cm
• It shows the lives of
noble women in
ancient China
• Gu also made great advances in summarizing
painting theories. His theoretical works included
Painting Thesis and Notes on Painting Yuntai
Mountain. Gu paid considerable attention to the
vivid expressions of his subjects to expose their
spirit. His Graphic Theory later became a basic
theory for traditional Chinese painting. According
to historical records, Gu created more than 70
paintings based on historical stories, Buddha,
human figures, birds, animals, mountains and
rivers. His three existing scroll paintings include
the Nvshi Zhen Painting, Luoshen Appraisal
Painting and Lienv Renzhi Painting -- the
earliest examples of scroll paintings.
Wu Daozi, Sage in Chinese Painting
(680-759) was the first to
make full use of flexibility of the
brush and to employ wave-like lines
instead of wire-like lines, arriving
at a third-dimensional effect.
• 吴道子(680-759)是唐代第一大画家。苏
愈),书至于颜鲁公(颜真卿), 画至于
• Wu Daozi
• In Chinese history, three people are
revered as sages: the calligrapher Wang
Xizhi of the West Jin Dynasty (265-316),
the poet Du Fu of the Tang Dynasty (618907) and the painter Wu Daozi, also of the
Tang Dynasty.
• Wu's most prolific period was during the Kaiyuan and
Tianbao eras (713-755) in the Tang Dynasty. Born in
Yangzhai (Yu County in Henan Province), Wu lost
both his parents at a young age and lived a hard life
in his early years. He learned how to make a living
from folk artists and sculptors. Because Wu studied
hard and was talented in art, he earned himself a
good reputation as a painter by the time he was 20
years old. Emperor Xuanzong invited Wu as an
imperial painter in the court, naming him Daoxuan.
As an imperial painter, Wu only painted at the
emperor's request, which was a big restriction for a
civilian painter. On the other hand, the court provided
the best living conditions and was an outlet for artistic
• Wu's character was unrestrained, direct and
indifferent to trivial matters, and it is known he
always drank while painting. It is also said that
when Wu drew the halo around Buddha's head
in a mural, he only used his brushes without
drafting the measurements first; when he
painted at Longxing Temple, the temple was
always packed with observers. Wu moved his
brush quickly, and most of his works were
accomplished in a single session. Chang'an
(present day Xi'an), capital of the Tang Dynasty,
was the cultural center of the time where many
famous men of letters and artists lived. Wu had
many opportunities to stay with them, which
helped improve his painting skills.
• Wu mainly created religious murals all his life
and his abundant works had a wide range of
subjects. According to records, Wu painted over
300 murals and more than 100 scrolls. While
many of them involved Buddhism and Taoism,
Wu also drew mountains, rivers, flowers and
birds. The Presentation of Buddha is his most
representative work. Unlike his predecessor Gu
Kaizhi, whose line strokes were slender and
forceful but lacked variety, Wu's strokes were full
of change and vigor, expressing the internal
world of his subjects. Wu was always in great
ferment when he was painting, and his works
exhibit an expressionist style.
Art Historian: Zhang Yanyuan
• Zhang Yanyuan, styling himself Aibin, was the
art historian of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Born
into a chancellor family in Yishi of Puzhou (Linqi
County of Shanxi Province), Zhang took office
as zuopushe buque, ministry counselor of the Ci
department and chief minister of Dali. He was a
learned scholar and excellent painter and
calligrapher. Zhang's works include Fashu Yaolu,
Collection of Poems on Color Paper and the first
general history of art -- Records of Historical
Famous Paintings.
• Records of Historical Famous Paintings《历代名
画记》 gave a summation of ancients'
achievements in painting history. Following the
tradition of combining historical facts and
painting critics, Zhang initiated the style of
general art history. By using abundant materials,
Zhang's research focused on the development
and internal relations of art history, using
systematic historical painting materials to
support his theories. The book extensively
covered the development and significant
theories of the history of painting. The biography
section consisted of comprehensive records of
painters' lives, thoughts and works.
• Zhang passed equitable judgments on painters
by quoting predecessors, yet still developed his
own ideas. From the point of view of the whole
process of art creation and appreciation, Zhang
brought recording, appraising, collecting,
circulating and even mounting to the list of
indispensable components, which gave rise to
the integral research system of Chinese painting
history. For a long time, the book was regarded
as China's first publication on the general
painting history and bibliography of painting of
the period. It had a unique position in the
development of Chinese painting as a link
between the past and future
• In general, there are several features to Zhang's artistic
theory. Apart from confirming Xie He's theory that
painting had moral and political functions, Zhang put
more emphasis on the meaning of painting itself.
Opposing dull and stereotyped painting styles, Zhang
stressed that painting needs ingenious creation and that
the basic skill of painting lay in conception and stroke. A
painter's cultural taste and personality were also very
important to painting. Zhang was the first to forward the
theory that painting was a career of moral scholars who
had knowledge and unique personalities. As one of the
earliest art theorists and critics, Zhang contributed many
achievements to the theory of ancient painting history.
Zhan Ziqian (展子虔)
• Zhan Ziqian was a painter of the Sui
Dynasty. His birth and death date are
unknown. He had been a government
official during the period of North
Qi, North Zhou and Sui, and was a
versatile(多才多艺) and creative
painter whose landscape painting was
the most influential of that time.
His representative work is
Sightseeing in Spring(游春图)
Sightseeing in Spring(游春图)
Four Great Masters in Song
• Li Tang (李唐)was a master of monumental
style who painted with a wrinkle method and
axe-cut strokes(釜劈皴), which ultimately
became a unique feature of academic
landscape painting.
• Liu Songnian(刘松年) excelled in
landscape painting using the blue-and-green
• Ma Yuan(马远) and Xia Gui(夏圭)
developed a big wrinkle method under the
influence of Li Tang, which eventually
formed a landscape painting style known as
the Ma-Xia school.
Riverside Scenes at Qingming Festival
• Riverside Scenes at Qingming Festiva is a
marvelous hand-scroll of 5.25 meters in
length and 0.24 meter in height by Zhang
Zeduan(张择端), a master painter. It is
a minute depiction of the scenery and life
along a river in Bianliang(卞粱), the
capital of Northern Song, on the day of
Tomb Sweeping Festival.
• This masterpiece is painted in ink with
light colors and is full of surprising
details. This painting also vividly
depicts water, bridge, boats, streets,
markets, carts, crowds and human figures.
It is not only a wonderful work or art but
also an invaluable record of history.
Riverside Scenes at Qingming Festival
Riverside Scenes at Qingming Festival
Riverside Scenes at Qingming
Riverside Scenes at Qingming
Painting in Ming Dynasty
• Outside the court, many painters practiced
a freer, less restrained form of painting
and formed different schools of distinctive
styles: the Zhejiang School(浙派)
represented by Dai Jin(戴进), the
Jiangxia School(江夏派)by Wu Wei(吴伟),
the Songjiang School(松江派)by Dong
Qichang(董其昌)and Four Schools of Wu(吴
门四派), which included many famous
painters such as the Four Great Masters of
Ming(明朝四大家) Shen Zhou(沈周), Wen
Zhengming(文徵明), Tang Yin(唐寅) and
Qiu Ying(仇英).
Tang Yan’s Work
Tang Yan’s Work
• 郑燮Zheng Xie:
Preparation for next chapter:
Describe any folk handicraft you
know or you like.