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Workshops on Pedagogy and
Resources: Animation and
Visualising Chemistry 2
16-17 March 2006
Features of Visualising Chemistry
Pedagogy: POE
References on Chemistry Demonstrations
Tryout and Group Discussion (worksheet)
(12 expts in Part 2, 3-4 teachers per group)
Constructivist teacher is a classroom researcher
and a learning doctor
Constructivist Approach
 Students are ‘constructing’ their own knowledge by
testing ideas and approaches based on their prior
learning experience, applying these to a new situation,
and so relating the new knowledge gained to their
existing conceptual frameworks.
 Teaching sequences should be designed that begin by
eliciting the students’ current ideas about a subject. This
process may sometimes be carried out by teacher’s
verbal questioning; or by asking students to produce
concept maps, to brain-storm posters for a topic in small
group, to discuss concept cartoons, or by using a written
probe as a pre-test.
Keith Taber (2002)
Construction of knowledge
Constructing Knowledge
Principle of Learning
Knowledge is a constructive
process: learners actively
make meaning and
construct ideas and the
connections between them.
Principle of teaching
Students should be
encouraged to be active
learners and problemsolvers.
Are students encouraged to be active learners when:
•About 2/3 of the talk in classrooms is done by the teacher,
•About 2/3 of teacher talk is organization-controlling talk?
Prof Peter Hill
Social constructivism
 Learning is a social activity
 Learners are involved in constructing
consensual meaning through discussions and
 Students can identify and articulate their own
views, exchange ideas and reflect on other
students’ view, reflect critically on their own
views and when necessary, re-organising their
own views and negotiate shared meaning
 Engaging learners collaboratively in open ended,
exploratory learning environments where
students can construct meaningful knowledge
Computer-mediated POE Tasks
 Life demonstration usually in ‘whole class’
 Computer environment permits more intimate,
small group interaction with the POE task
 Allowing teacher more time to interact with
 Collaborative small groups encourage the social
interactions and personal reflections which are
essential for peer learning
 Enhance students’ critical thinking skills
 Demonstrate-Observe-Explain (DOE) first used
in 1979 to probe thinking of first year physics
students at University of Pittsburg
 Gunstone and White (1981) reworked the ‘DOE’
idea into ‘POE’ to probe secondary students
understanding of science concepts
 As an efficient strategy for eliciting and
promoting discussion of students’ science
 A POE strategy is used to structure the learners’
engagement with the video clips
Description: Setting the Scene
 Contexts depict interesting, novel, potentially
dangerous or time-consuming situations that are
normally not possible or difficult to observe in
class demonstrations
 Suitable for students’ level of comprehension
 Provide some experiences without using any
chemicals and equipment, or generating
chemical waste
Probing Students’ Understanding
 Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE)
Predict the outcome of some event, and justify the
Record the observation
Reconcile any conflict between prediction and
 Worksheet
 For exploring students’ ideas at the beginning of
a topic, or to develop ideas during a topic, or to
enhance understanding at the end of topic by
having them to apply their learning to a real
Part 2: 12 Experiments
Genie in a Bottle
Elephant’s Toothpaste
Electrolysis of brine
Which is a stronger oxidizing
Reaction of Sulphur and Oxygen
Photochemical reactions of Cl2
with H2 & CH4
Fairy’s Lamp
Breathalyser (BUHK)
Detergent boat
What is malachite?
Red, White and Blue
Part 1: 10 Experiments
Liquid Nitrogen
Flame Colour
Three States of Chlorine
Making Silicon from Sand
Reactions of Alkali Metals with
Hydrogen Rocket (video, launcher)
Dry Ice and Indicators
Acid Bombs
Cannon Fire
Aluminium-air Cell
Students’ Comments
 “Questions given after each experiments could help
students to think more and the answers given help
students correct their wrong concepts.”
 「之後有解釋,令同學明白。有預測部分,令人
 “This program is good, at least I can think about the
whole experiment, do a prediction, instead of only
receiving the answers.”
 “I think this program is more interesting than the
normal class. Discuss the experiment can let us think
Students’ Comments
 “The reaction of a lump of dry ice with different
indicators is very fascinating and interesting as I haven’t
seen and known the result of this reaction before.”
 “The program is quite good because it let us know more
thing that is not in our textbook.”
 “I think the network experiment is more convenient than
we just reading the book.”
 “This program is quite good. We can see the experiment
on the website. It can make us know more and clear. If the
website can have more experiments and have a long and
clear explanation, that will be great.”
 「好,非常好。有空一定會上網觀看。但再加多一些
實驗。 」
POE Template
Predict-Observe-Explain Science eTasks
Predict-Observe-Explain eShell
/tools/info/T3/index.html (#)
Video Files
 Streamed video clips edited using MS Movie Maker
 Ready for use in webpages and e-learning platform
Chemistry Demonstrations
 Often spectacular: stimulating and motivating
 Enable students to see experiments they would
not be able to perform themselves
Requires chemical skills that are beyond their own
Potentially dangerous in unskilled hands
Requires expensive apparatus and/or chemicals
Require facilities which are not available in sufficient
number for class practical work
 They allow students to see a skilled practitioner
at work
Ted Lister (1995)
Reference Books
 Lister, T. (1995) Classic Chemistry
Demonstrations, London: RSC
student worksheets available for download at
 Ealy, J. B. & Ealy, Jr. J. L. (1995)
Visualizing Chemistry: Investigations for
Teachers, Washington: ACS
 H W Roesdky and K Mockel (1996)
Chemical Curiosities, New York: VCH
Publishers, Inc.
Using Demonstrations to Promote
Student Comprehension in Chemistry
 “Chemistry – a reflection of man’s struggle to explain his
world and to survive in it”
 “The adventure of chemistry is often reduced to passive
lectures and cookbook labs that stifle student questions,
exploration and interest.”
 “The challenge for today’s new generation of chemistry
teachers is to create intriguing moments of perplexity
that challenge students to seek solutions through
actually doing chemistry.”
 Develop high order thinking skills: “Observing an
unexpected event prompts students to wonder, to ask
questions, to investigate, and to draw conclusions that
explain what was observed.”
J. Chem Ed, 80 (4), p.431-435.
Shell Game
 Qualities of an effective demonstration: a specific
academic purpose, use of commonly available materials,
student engagement, links to previous student learning
and experience, showmanship, a post-demonstration
+ NH3(aq)
+ sodium polyacrylate (from diaper)
Chemical Demonstrations
 Delights of Chemistry, University of Leeds
 Chemistry Demonstrations, 3 video tapes
Cream Cracker, Petrol Spill; Agent in HK: MediaMatters Tel 2851 8809
Chemical Demonstrations
 Salters’ Chemistry Club Handbook
Chemical Demonstrations
 Chemical Demonstrations, Flinn Scientific Inc.
The Joys of Sound and Light in the Lab
Demonstrations and Class Experiments
 Irwin Talesnick, 59 experiments
Chemical Demonstrations
 Chemistry Comes Alive, Journal of Chem Education
Chemical Demonstrations
 Chemical Demonstrations Volumes 1-4
A Handbook for Teachers of Chemistry
by Bassam Z. Shakhashiri
 Chemical Demonstration Videos
Once Upon a Christmas Cheery in the
Lab of Shakhashiri
 Available at Education Innovations, Inc.
Open Day
 Programme
 Demonstration, DIY & Movie Show
Reference Books
 Taber, K (2002) Chemical misconceptions :
prevention, diagnosis and cure, Cambridge: RSC
“By using demonstrations in appropriate and
thoughtful ways, teachers will teach better, inspire
more, and increase the likelihood that chemistry will
contribute to a better future for all of us.”
L. S. Meyer et al.
Thank you
[email protected]
Tel 2712 8476 (before 28/4/06)
Prototype Enriching Knowledge Online
Course for NSS Chemistry Curriculum
 Login ID: abc
Password: 123456
References and Resources -> Chemistry
-> S6-7 Chemistry