ALİ RIZA GÜMÜŞ 14371962058
EVREN KÖYBAŞI 28853171050
VOJTECH HEMALA 90000004215
So, what is a Controller?
Structure of a Controller
Modes of Controllers (P, PI, PD, PID)
PI controller will eliminate forced oscillations and steady state error
resulting in operation of on-off controller and P controller respectively.
However, introducing integral mode has a negative effect on speed of the
response and overall stability of the system. Thus, PI controller will not
increase the speed of response.
This problem can be solved by introducing derivative mode which has
ability to predict what will happen with the error in near future and thus
to decrease a reaction time of the controller.
DISCRETIZING A PID CONTROLLER
Development of discrete-time PID
A stepper motor is a brushless DC
electric motor that divides a full rotation
into a number of equal steps
Step motors are seperated two
main part unipolar and bipolar
Unipolar & Bİpolar
A unipolar stepper motor has one winding with center
tap(common wire) per phase
In bipolar motors have a single winding per phase
Operation of stepper motors
To operate step motors , you must apply pulse to each
coil in different phase.
Driving this type of motor is a bit different from the
Stepper motor positioning
All dc servo motors we can take position info by
connecting the potentiometer to its shaft
In step motor rotates step by step , because of this we
can divide the pot partially to determine the each step
.It means each step has a voltage value.
Analog & Digital Operations
In PLC s7 200 cpu 224 xp all operations can be made.
First of all we are looking some useful code for this
PLC. Then we will see the example of its application
BCDI OUT : Convert BCD to Integer
IBCD OUT: Convert Integer to BCD
BTI IN, OUT Convert Byte to Integer
ITB IN, OUT Convert Integer to Byte
ITD IN, OUT Convert Integer to Double Integer
DTI IN, OUT Convert Double Integer to Integer
DTR IN, OUT Convert DWord to Real
Online Subtract Operation
In this example lots of operatıons are used.
The main idea is :
To observe the analog output voltage of PLC when we
apply desired input voltage
We can follow these steps to solce
e.g. : Choose a reference voltage as 2,4 V .Then apply a
arbitrary voltage.When you measure the analog output of
PLC , you will see the voltage “applied voltage – reference
(2,4 V)”. When you change the input , the output will
change as proportional.
2.4 , VD0
// VD0=2,4 V
//INPUT 32 BIT
3276,8 , AC0