West Vigo High School

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West Vigo High School

Literacy Strategies In-service Four Square, KWL, Cloze, SQR3 Word of the Week, Zoom In – Zoom Out April 12 and 13, 2005

Metacognitive Strategies

These are the strategies that strong readers and strong learners have:


- This encourages students to read with a purpose and to confirm or correct what they predicted.


- Allows learners to actively check how much they understand while reading. Students can pose questions such as, "What is the main idea?" and "Are there examples to help me understand what I just read?" Students who ask their own questions show greater improvement in comprehension.


words, or by summarizing the main points, students get a sense of how much they understand.

- By putting the concepts of a passage or section into their own

Visual Representation

- Creating visual models of ideas within a text provides a means of organizing information into understandable wholes, and promotes the visualization of relationships.


- This strategy involves referring to what has already been read in order to increase understanding of the material.

Changing Reading Speed

- When students encounter obstacles like an unusual writing style or too many unknown words, they can modify their reading speed. Good readers are able to determine the appropriate pace for their purpose. For example, they can determine when it is best to quickly scan the material (such as newspapers) and when to read slowly and deliberately (such as a science textbook).

Four Square

• Purpose – Analysis of content • Sorting and classifying – Emphasizing procedural thinking • Organization for writing • Organization for problem solving • Step-by-step skill building – Summaries • Use – during and after instruction

Four Square

1. Place the central concept, procedure, or problem in the center square 2. Place indicators of the desired action in the surrounding squares 3.

Model a “practice” sequence for students 4. Provide timely checks for understanding as students practice.

Text Four Square Model


Text Topic Text Text

Four Square for Math Story Problems

Decide Operation (Explain choice) Computation (Show your work) Key Words: Data: Terms for Solution: Check your work (Use another strategy) Solution: ______ Why does that make sense?

Four Square for Longer Research Topics

Subtopic Subtopic Main Topic Subtopic Overall Conclusion

Four Square for Lab Reports

Hypothesis and Why?

Materials and Procedure Question to Explore Observations and Data Conclusions

Four Square for Literature

Conflict: poses a question for the story Rise in action: Things often get worse before they get better Exposition: Characters and Setting, before the action begins Climax: Question is answered Denouement: A sense of how life continues for the characters after this event

Four Square Book Review

Description of Main Character Brief Summary Bibliographical Information A Noteworthy Scene Who may like a book like this?

Narrative Four Square

What problem does the character have?

______________________________ ______________________________ How do things get even worse?

______________________________ ______________________________ Who? ____________ Where? __________ How does the problem get solved?

______________________________ ______________________________ What does the character learn?

______________________________ ______________________________

Processes in Technology or FCS

Statement of the problem Hypotheses Problem Solving Models Selection Testing and Revision

Inquiry in the Fine Arts

Composer/Creator Historical Context Composition Aspects of the composition Interpretation

Lou Brackall

Inquiry in the Fine Arts

Vincent Van Gogh Impressionism Wheat Field With Crows Hidden Meanings Symbolic Interpretations

Tonya Pfaff

Softball Diamond

• In slow-pitch softball, the distance between consecutive bases is 65 feet. The pitcher’s plate is located on a line between second base and home plate, 50 feet from home plate. How far is the pitcher’s plate from second base?

Four Square for Math Story Problems

Decide Operation (Explain choice)Find distance from home to 2 nd , and then subtract 50 from answer Computation (Show your work) 65²+ 65²= c² c²= 8450 c= 91.9

91.9 – 50= 41.9

Key Words: Distance Data: 65 feet, 50 feet Terms for Solution: Pythagorean Theorem Check your work (Use another strategy) Borrow DeGroote’s tape measure and physically measure a softball field.

Solution: 41.9

Why does that make sense? I know that the pitcher’s mound is not half way between home and 2 that would be too easy.

nd . Also, I know that 65 is not the answer, because

Bob Jackson

Four Square for Lab Reports Hypothesis

When a small amount of water in a coke can is heated to boiling and then cooled quickly in ice water, the can will collapse.

Charles’ Law


1Obtain 1 coke can, empty.

2Put a small amount of water in the bottom of the can.

3Heat the can on a hot plate until the water boils.

4. When the water boils, quickly remove the can from the burner, invert the can and submerse it in a bucket of ice water. Direct relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas.

Observations and Data

1As the can gets hot, the water is changed to vapor.

2The water boils, the can begins to make “crinkling and popping noises”.

3When the can is taken off the hot plate and then placed into the ice water, the can very quickly crushes – Awesome!


1When water is heated in a coke can, the water changes to steam and expands inside the can.

2When the heated can is placed into the ice water, the water vapor contracts and as a result the can is crushed by the water pressure on the outside of the can.


• Purpose

– Stimulate prior knowledge – Establish relevancy for the topic – Summarize learning

• Use

– Before, during and after instruction as a means of ongoing understanding checks


What I



What I


to Know



What I

LEARNED SUMMARIZE learning and establish goals for FUTURE learning

 Brainstorm

prior knowledge

– what I know or think I know about this topic  Teacher generates categories from this list that help the reader: o Organize their conceptions o Identify what is unknown o o Compare and contrast with other issues/systems Anticipate cause and effect o Anticipate organization of the texts to be used to explore what is unknown – how will topics be organized and information be presented?  Teacher uses this information to identify misconceptions  Determine the


of the topic  Determine what topics should be addressed from what I know and do not know about this topic  Generate inquiry questions about the topic  Select texts to supplement inquiry 


learning by providing: o Answers to inquiry questions o Posing key questions for future inquiry  Teacher uses this information to remediate and extend learning Beyond being used at the beginning and end of a unit, this strategy is for use at

multiple points

within a unit to provide

ongoing checks for understanding



What I



What I


to Know


What I


Three Economic Systems

Cheryl Irwin

What do we know about Economic Systems?

• • Each country has an economic system

Teacher prompt (hint) “What are the three basic economic questions?”

• Some one decides what to produce • • Someone decides for whom to produce • • Someone decides how to produce

Teacher prompt “What about the factors of productions” Someone must own the factors of production: Land, Labor, Capital, and Entrepreneurship.

What do I want to know?

• What are the names of the economic systems?

• How many economic systems exist?

• How does a country decide who makes the economic decisions?

• Who owns the factors of production in each of the economic systems?

What I Learned

• There are 3 basic economic systems • The 3 basic economic systems are: – –


economic questions are answered through habit, ritual, and tradition. Tribal societies are known for their traditional economies. Everyone learns economic tasks from their parents, who learned them from their parents.

– Economic system is determined by tradition and basic


– This economic system is determined by the government. Communist countries have command economies. All basic economic questions are answered by one person or a few people, together. Government has control over most economic activity. –


– The basic economic questions are answered by individuals and businesses. There is little government control over business and industry, except in a regulatory capacity and taxation. Democratic nations have market economies.

– *

None of the above economic systems are ‘pure’; they are mixtures of two or more economic systems.


What I


Classroom form for ‘KWL’


What I


to Know


What I


Conceptions & Misconceptions Relevancy & Purpose Summarize Learning

John Newport

The Design Process

• Define the Problem • Brainstorm • Pick and Try • Evaluate

What We Know about Design

• What is Design – Blueprints – Sketching • Who Designs – Engineers – Architects • Where do we design – Companies • When do we design – Beginning of a construction project – Design cars • How do we design – Draw on paper

What I We Want To Know About Design • How do I do it?

– Design Process

• Why would I do it?

• Why is it so important?

• Where can I do it?

What I Have Learned About Design • Design saves time and money • Design saves lives • The design process from start to end

Trudy Longest

Lo que se

s Q

Lo que quiero saber


Lo que aprendi El Camino Real Los tres caminos el restaraunte el taco burrito comar beber Pino’s Il Sonata quesadillas cuantos ------------------------------------------------- - They eat They eat tacos and chimichangas All the foods are spicy How much is it?

What’s your phone number?

artichoke Beer ________________________________________ What do they eat?

Are all the foods spicy?

las frutas los vegetales las bebidas ________________________________________ Eating times Variety of foods Importance of food Origin of foods Not all Spanish speakers look alike


• Purpose

– Introduce the topic – Introduce vocabulary in context – Focuses attention on word recognition and speech to print match – Check for understanding before and after lesson

• Use

– Before and after instruction


• Determine the text to use – this could be an abstract or portion of the text. The form will be dictated by what you want to convey • Determine the key vocabulary you wish to emphasize • Determine whether to hide the vocabulary or words that help contextualize the vocabulary – depends on student needs and readiness to attack the content (extent of prior knowledge)

Let’s try it!


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SQR3 – Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review • Purpose

– Provides reader with a systematic means of approaching a textbook – Promotes meta-cognition about the text • Organizes information and answers questions – Repetition and thinking about applications moves content from short-term to long-term memory

• Use

– During instruction


Step One: Survey Survey the chapter: 1.read the introduction 2.look over section headings and figures 3.skim the summary and end of chapter exercises 4.create a context for remembering by writing what you already know about the topic in the space to the right 5.following that, write questions about what you hope to discover through the reading What I already know: Questions I have:

Now plan your study time – length of time before breaks and a reward at the end.

Step Two: Question (apply to each section) 1.What is the main point?

2.What evidence supports the main point?

3.What are the applications or examples?

4.How is this related to the rest of the reading, book, world, what I already know, or me?

Step Three: Read (apply to each section) 1.Search for answers to the questions above.

2.Mark the text with post-its (see right) to simplify for review.

How to mark the book with post-its 1.Do not mark until AFTER you finish reading the section or paragraph.

2.On the post-it, indicate the main idea, then write an example (steps of a process or proof) and connections to other points, definitions and your own thoughts.

Step Four: Recite (the main points for each section) 1.Look up from the book and verbalize the answers to your questions.

2.Listen to your answers as you recite them because this helps you remember!

Step Five: Review 1.Go back and review the main points in the section, revise your post-it notes as needed.

2.Repeat for each section of the text.

3.Create a summary of the chapter in the space below: Summary: Now do any homework assignments – use your summary first, then the text. Reward yourself for good work!

Cheryl Dean

• • • • • •

SQRQCQ Solving word problems


– survey the problem to get at general understanding


for – question what the problem is asking


– reread to identify facts, relevant information, and details to help solve


– question what mathematical operations apply


– solve the problem


– Is the solution accurate? Does it make sense?

Suppose that students are given the following problem: Chris had some glass bears. He was given 8 more for his birthday. Now he has 15. How many glass bears did he have before?



, students would:


the problem and notice that Chris has 8 items and receives some more to make a total of 15 items.


the problem is asking would seem to be “How many items did he start out with?”


would cause students to think “8 plus some number equals 15.” Students would



When I know a sum and one of the two addends, how can I find the other addend? or If 8 + N = 15, the how can I find N?

The students would realize that they have to subtract the find the answer since subtraction is the inverse operation of addition.

Next, they would


the solution to the equation as follows:

8 + N = 15

Finally, they would

QUESTION 8 - 8 + N = 15 - 8 N = 7

themselves again:

Is it true that 7 + 8 = 15? or if Chris started with 7 glass bears and received 8 more, would he have 15? The answer is “Yes”, so the computed answer is correct.

Here is another example: Each school T-shirt costs the same amount. Anita paid $15 for 3 T-shirts. What was the cost of each shirt?

The following steps show student thinking:


I notice that Anita has 3 shirts and paid $15 total for the 3 of them.


I’m looking for the cost of each of the 3 shirts Anita bought.


Since the problem says that each shirt costs the same amount, I know that the cost I find will be the same for each one.


If I know that 3 shirts cost $15, then what operation do I use to find the cost of one shirt?, or 3 times the cost equals $15, so I must divide $15 by 3 to find the cost of one shirt (since division is the inverse of multiplication).

COMPUTE 3 X N = 15 (3 X N) divided by 3 = 15 divided by 3 N = 5 QUESTION

If one shirt costs $5, would 3 shirts cost $15, or Is it true that 3 time $5 is $15? Yes it is, so the answer must be correct.

Word of the Week (WOW)

• Purpose

– Encourage development and use of vocabulary in context – May be used as a school-wide effort to pursue value-laden concepts that reinforce social conduct

• Use

– Before, during and after instruction

Word of the Week (WoW)

This strategy is designed to encourage students to develop their vocabulary. Each week students select an unfamiliar word whose meaning and use they want to know. They add the word to their vocabulary notebooks. They also use the word regularly during the week. In addition, each week one class member presents the class word of the week. All class members use the class word as well as their own word in their assignments during the week. This process of making new words their own helps students to construct an ever-widening vocabulary.

Class word of the week (parallel structure for individual WoW):


Writing Suggestions:

Day One: Day Two:

Define loyalty as a class. Individuals write a summary of the meaning of loyalty.

Describe someone in your life who is loyal. Include facts/evidence to show how he or she has been loyal. (Personal Connection)

Day Three:

Think about _________. ( A character in a poem, story or supplemental reading.) Compare this character to the summary you wrote on Monday. Is she or he loyal? Why or why not? (Text Connection)

Day Four:

Think about _______. (A person in the community or in the news) Compare this character to the summary you wrote on Monday. Is she or he loyal? Why or why not? (World Connection)


To enhance this activity for multiple learning styles, students may also engage in further discussion (small group or whole class), create an illustration, or engage in dramatization prior to writing.

Mike Buske


• Day One: We will define determination as a class. Write a summary of the meaning of determination and how you can apply it to achieving your own physical fitness goals.

• Day Two: Describe someone in your life who has demonstrated determination. Include facts/evidence to show how he or she is determined


• Day Three: Think about the tortoise in the story of The Tortoise and The Hare. Compare the tortoise to the summary you wrote on Monday. Is she or he determined? Why or why not? • Day Four: Think about Lance Armstrong. Compare Lance to the summary you wrote on Monday. Has he shown determination? Why or why not?

• Before day three I will engage the students in a class discussion about The Tortoise and The Hare story so that I know everyone is familiar with the story and how it would apply to the slow, steady approach to attaining physical fitness.

• Before day four I will allow the students to use laptops to research Lance Armstrong and his accomplishments and how it applies to the WOW. I have to know everyone is familiar with Lance before they can write about him.

Zooming In - Zooming Out

• Purpose – Introduce and reinforce vocabulary and concepts through a single or multiple texts – Allows students to test and integrate prior knowledge – Promotes analysis through comparisons and development of related ideas • Zooming in to specific traits and characteristics • Zooming out to the big picture (contextualizing information) • Use – Before, during and after instruction

Zooming In and Zooming Out Information Sheet Phase One: Introduction

Topic: Teacher: Introduces the concept and “situates” concept in the “big picture” Focuses on key understandings and key vocabulary within context Brainstorming notes: Teacher: Conducts a brainstorming session Records students’ comments (board, paper, word-processing document, Inspiration) Students: Brainstorm revealing prior knowledge Record outcomes of brainstorming (this may be done through paper/pencil work or importing a word-processing or Inspiration file)

Phase Two: Text Interactions

Class notes from reading: Teacher: Selects and assigns several sources (texts) for students or student groups to read Bring students together to record facts found – record on a “Fact Chart” (paper, board, word-processing document) Lead students to refine the original brainstorming Students: Read and take notes on assigned texts Participate in discussion to identify found facts Refine original brainstorming correcting errors and misperceptions

Phase Three: Zooming In Zoom In

Teacher: Direct students individually or in small groups to review the fact chart and brainstorming chart to identify X most important facts and X least important facts Have students vote on the top X facts for each category and record these on a mapping chart; have students record individually Ask students to identify non-examples in the form of “I would not expect . . .” Record on the mapping chart Most important: Least important: Would not expect:

Phase Four: Zooming Out Zoom Out

Teacher: Continue whole class discussion by asking students to think of ideas similar to the concept. Write these ideas on the mapping chart Prompt: “You cannot talk about X without talking about Y.” Write these ideas on the mapping chart Similar to: Related ideas:

Phase Five: Summary Statement

Summary statement : Teacher: Once the mapping is complete, model how to construct a summary statement and then have students construct a individually Have students share summary statements; devise one that best represents the conclusions found by the class

Zooming In

Most Important: Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3

Mapping and Summary Statement Chart

Least Important: Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3 Related ideas: Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3

Topic Zooming Out

Similar to: Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3 Summary Statement Not Expected Idea 1 Idea 2 Idea 3

Zooming In and Zooming Out Information Sheet

Topic: Brainstorming notes: Class notes from reading:

Zoom In

Most important: Least important: Would not expect: Similar to: Summary statement:

Zoom Out

Related ideas:


• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •


Four Square: http://www.peninsula.wednet.edu/learningteaching/curriculum/staff_dev.asp

Cloze: http://www.quia.com/servlets/quia.activities.common.ActivityPlayer?AP_rand=142918 2008&AP_activityType=16&AP_urlId=7851&AP_continuePlay=true&id=7851 KWL: http://www.litandlearn.lpb.org/strategies.html

SQR3: http://www.litandlearn.lpb.org/strategies.html

SQRQC (Mathematics): http://www.litandlearn.lpb.org/strategies/strat_sqrqcq.pdf

Word of the Week: http://webpages.acs.ttu.edu/thouse/Word%20of%20the%20Week.htm

General: Wood, Karen D. and Harmon, Janis M. (2003).

Strategies for Integrating Reading and Writing in Middle and High School Classrooms. Westerville, OH: NMSA.

Gillet, Jean W. (2005).

Teach It!

Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.