Document 7237595

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Transcript Document 7237595

Judaism: Faith of our Fathers
The Land of the Jews
• Palestine: eastern end of Mediterranean
– Home of Phoenicians, the Philistines, and
the Hebrews
• Where did the name ‘Palestine’ come from?
• Canaan: Land of the Hebrews
– Located within region of Palestine
Palestine, c.1200 BC
The Search for a Promised Land
• Palestine
– Crossroads of empire
• Assyria and Babylon to East
• Egypt to West
– Connection to trade routes
• Mediterranean Sea
• Red Sea
– Canaan
• Region between Jordan River and
Mediterranean Sea
• Hebrews believed Canaan was promised to
them by God
The Torah
• Holy Book of Judaism
– First 5 books of Old Testament (Written
Torah or Tanakh)
• Five Books of Moses:
Abraham, Father of 3 Faiths
• Story of Abraham
– Chosen by God as father of Hebrews
– Shepherd in city of Ur
• Citizen of what civilization and
– Commanded by God to move tribe to
Genesis 12:1-2
• ‘Go from your country and your kindred
and your father’s house to the land that
I will show you. I will make of you a
great nation, and I will bless you, and
make your name great.’
• Why would Abraham obey this
Loyalty to God!
• Abraham Prepares to Sacrifice Issac
Leaving Ur
• 1800 BC
– Abraham moves family and followers to
Canaan after much wandering through
• 1650 BC
– Hebrews relocate to Egypt for a short time,
then back to Canaan
Abraham’s Travels
The God of Abraham
• The first monotheistic faith
– God known as Yahweh in Hebrew Scripture
• In Hebrew: (yod) ‫( ה‬heh) ‫( ו‬vav) ‫( ה‬heh) or ‫( יהוה‬YHWH)-ee-ah-oo-eh
• The true name of God is never to be spelled out or
spoken aloud!
– G-D, Adonai ("my Lord"), or Hashem (the Name)
– WHY?
• 3rd Commandment!
– Not a physical being; forbidden to create an
image of Him!
• 2nd Commandment!
The Covenant
• Yahweh has power over all peoples
• Yahweh promises to protect Hebrew
people because Abraham promised to
worship Him
Drought in Canaan
• 1650 BC
– Famine and drought plagues Canaan
• How might Hebrews respond?
– Migrate to Egypt
• Eventually enslaved
The Exodus
• 1300-1200 BC
– The Exodus
• Flight of the Jews from
• Led by Moses
• The New Covenant
– Moses receives Ten
Commandments from
Yahweh on Mt. Sinai
• Forms basis of civil,
religious law in Judaism
• Hebrews honor
Yahweh protects
Ten Commandments
1."I am the Lord your G-d, Who has taken
you out of the land of Egypt, from the
house of slavery“
2."You shall have no other gods but me"
3. "You shall not take the name of your
Lord in vain“
4. “You shall remember and keep the
Sabbath day holy"
Ten Commandments
5. "Honor your father and
6. "You shall not murder"
7. "You shall not commit
8. "You shall not steal"
9. "You shall not bear
false witness against
your neighbor"
10. "You shall not covet
your neighbor's goods.
You shall not covet
your neighbour's
house. You shall not
covet your neighbour's
wife, nor his
manservant, nor his
maidservant, nor his
bull, nor his donkey,
nor anything that is
your neighbour's."
On the Ten Commandments
• Jewish Interpretation
– First 4 Commandments deal with God and
– Second 6 deal with relations between
• Catholic and Protestant versions differ
from each other and from Jewish
• Accepted in Islam, but believed
The God of the Hebrews
• Is also the God of the Christians and
– Known as the Abrahamic Faiths!
Wandering the Desert
• Moses leads the Jews through Sinai
Desert for 40 years
– Eventually return to Canaan and establish
twelve tribes of Israel
• Self-governing; united in times of need
• The Prophets
– Large number of prophets in Hebrew
• Functioned as religious teachers
• Taught about Ten Commandments
Some Prophets
• Moshe Rabeinu
– Most important in Hebrew history!
– Who is he?
• Female Prophets
– Sarah, Miriam, Deborah, Esther
John the Baptist
Teachings of the Prophets
• Centered around ethical monotheism
– Right conduct and worship of one
– “He has told you, oh mortal what is
good; and what does the Lord require
of you but to do justice, and to love
kindness, and to walk humbly with
your God?”
»Micah, 6:8
The Kingdom of Israel
• 11 of 12 tribes weaken in Canaan
– Leaves one large tribe
• Tribe of Judah
• Hebrews come to be known as Jews,
religion Judaism
The Symbol of the Tribe of Judah
Building the Kingdom
• 1020-922 BC
• Hebrews unite under three kings
– Saul, David, Solomon
David: Whose head?
Saul and David
• Saul
– Chosen for military ability
• David
– Son-in-law of Saul
– Unites tribes, establishes Jerusalem as
David captures Jerusalem
Solomon the Wise
• Son of David and Bathsheba
– Rules 962 to 922 BC
– Greatest King of Hebrew History
• Built trade empire
• Beautified Jerusalem
• Built Temple to house Ark of the Covenant
– What was in the Ark?
• Built beautiful palace
• Considered wisest man in history
The Temple of Solomon
Bronze Pillars
Gold covered cedar walls
Hall decorated with brass and gold
Destroyed by Babylon in 586 BC
Israel Collapses
• Revolution!
– Building projects of Solomon led to forced
labor, high taxes
– Jews in Northern Israel revolt after death
of Solomon (922 BC)
• North becomes known as Israel
• South becomes known as Judah
– Kingdoms fight each other, other
civilizations for 200 years
The Destruction of Palestine
• 738 BC
– Israel, Judah pay tribute to Assyria as a
• 722 BC
– Assyria conquers Israel
• 586 BC
– Judah collapses at hands of Babylon (who
had conquered Assyria and beat Egypt)
• King Nebuchadnezzar
–Destroys Temple of Solomon
The Babylonian Captivity
• Survivors of Judah exiled to Babylon
– Forced to live as slaves
– Maintain religion despite problems!
• 539 BC
– Persians conquer Babylon
• King Cyrus of Persia
– Jews allowed to return to Jerusalem
• 40,000 return; many stay in Babylon!
Returning to Jerusalem
• 515 BC
– Second Temple completed
– Destroyed by Romans in 70 BC
• 445 BC
– Walls of Jerusalem rebuilt
The Wailing Wall
The Crossroads of Empire
• Israel and Jerusalem never regain lost
– Persians, Greeks, Romans all control land
of Palestine at various points
The Diaspora
• Jews have maintained culture and
traditions for over 3,000 years
– Diaspora=migration of Jews by force or
desire throughout world
• What does this tell us about Jewish
culture and religion?